Ning Shi


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Counterfactual Adversarial Learning with Representation Interpolation
Wei Wang | Boxin Wang | Ning Shi | Jinfeng Li | Bingyu Zhu | Xiangyu Liu | Rong Zhang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2021

Deep learning models exhibit a preference for statistical fitting over logical reasoning. Spurious correlations might be memorized when there exists statistical bias in training data, which severely limits the model performance especially in small data scenarios. In this work, we introduce Counterfactual Adversarial Training framework (CAT) to tackle the problem from a causality perspective. Particularly, for a specific sample, CAT first generates a counterfactual representation through latent space interpolation in an adversarial manner, and then performs Counterfactual Risk Minimization (CRM) on each original-counterfactual pair to adjust sample-wise loss weight dynamically, which encourages the model to explore the true causal effect. Extensive experiments demonstrate that CAT achieves substantial performance improvement over SOTA across different downstream tasks, including sentence classification, natural language inference and question answering.


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Recurrent Inference in Text Editing
Ning Shi | Ziheng Zeng | Haotian Zhang | Yichen Gong
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

In neural text editing, prevalent sequence-to-sequence based approaches directly map the unedited text either to the edited text or the editing operations, in which the performance is degraded by the limited source text encoding and long, varying decoding steps. To address this problem, we propose a new inference method, Recurrence, that iteratively performs editing actions, significantly narrowing the problem space. In each iteration, encoding the partially edited text, Recurrence decodes the latent representation, generates an action of short, fixed-length, and applies the action to complete a single edit. For a comprehensive comparison, we introduce three types of text editing tasks: Arithmetic Operators Restoration (AOR), Arithmetic Equation Simplification (AES), Arithmetic Equation Correction (AEC). Extensive experiments on these tasks with varying difficulties demonstrate that Recurrence achieves improvements over conventional inference methods.