Niranjan Pedanekar


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Hiding in Plain Sight: Insights into Abstractive Text Summarization
Vivek Srivastava | Savita Bhat | Niranjan Pedanekar
The Fourth Workshop on Insights from Negative Results in NLP

In recent years, there has been growing interest in the field of abstractive text summarization with focused contributions in relevant model architectures, datasets, and evaluation metrics. Despite notable research advances, previous works have identified certain limitations concerning the quality of datasets and the effectiveness of evaluation techniques for generated summaries. In this context, we examine these limitations further with the help of three quality measures, namely, Information Coverage, Entity Hallucination, and Summarization Complexity. As a part of this work, we investigate two widely used datasets (XSUM and CNNDM) and three existing models (BART, PEGASUS, and BRIO) and report our findings. Some key insights are: 1) Cumulative ROUGE score is an inappropriate evaluation measure since few high-scoring samples dominate the overall performance, 2) Existing summarization models have limited capability for information coverage and hallucinate to generate factual information, and 3) Compared to the model generated summaries, the reference summaries have lowest information coverage and highest entity hallucinations reiterating the need of new and better reference summaries.


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Empathic Machines: Using Intermediate Features as Levers to Emulate Emotions in Text-To-Speech Systems
Saiteja Kosgi | Sarath Sivaprasad | Niranjan Pedanekar | Anil Nelakanti | Vineet Gandhi
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

We present a method to control the emotional prosody of Text to Speech (TTS) systems by using phoneme-level intermediate features (pitch, energy, and duration) as levers. As a key idea, we propose Differential Scaling (DS) to disentangle features relating to affective prosody from those arising due to acoustics conditions and speaker identity. With thorough experimental studies, we show that the proposed method improves over the prior art in accurately emulating the desired emotions while retaining the naturalness of speech. We extend the traditional evaluation of using individual sentences for a more complete evaluation of HCI systems. We present a novel experimental setup by replacing an actor with a TTS system in offline and live conversations. The emotion to be rendered is either predicted or manually assigned. The results show that the proposed method is strongly preferred over the state-of-the-art TTS system and adds the much-coveted “human touch” in machine dialogue. Audio samples from our experiments and the code are available at:


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What BERTs and GPTs know about your brand? Probing contextual language models for affect associations
Vivek Srivastava | Stephen Pilli | Savita Bhat | Niranjan Pedanekar | Shirish Karande
Proceedings of Deep Learning Inside Out (DeeLIO): The 2nd Workshop on Knowledge Extraction and Integration for Deep Learning Architectures

Investigating brand perception is fundamental to marketing strategies. In this regard, brand image, defined by a set of attributes (Aaker, 1997), is recognized as a key element in indicating how a brand is perceived by various stakeholders such as consumers and competitors. Traditional approaches (e.g., surveys) to monitor brand perceptions are time-consuming and inefficient. In the era of digital marketing, both brand managers and consumers engage with a vast amount of digital marketing content. The exponential growth of digital content has propelled the emergence of pre-trained language models such as BERT and GPT as essential tools in solving myriads of challenges with textual data. This paper seeks to investigate the extent of brand perceptions (i.e., brand and image attribute associations) these language models encode. We believe that any kind of bias for a brand and attribute pair may influence customer-centric downstream tasks such as recommender systems, sentiment analysis, and question-answering, e.g., suggesting a specific brand consistently when queried for innovative products. We use synthetic data and real-life data and report comparison results for five contextual LMs, viz. BERT, RoBERTa, DistilBERT, ALBERT and BART.


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EmotionX-Area66: Predicting Emotions in Dialogues using Hierarchical Attention Network with Sequence Labeling
Rohit Saxena | Savita Bhat | Niranjan Pedanekar
Proceedings of the Sixth International Workshop on Natural Language Processing for Social Media

This paper presents our system submitted to the EmotionX challenge. It is an emotion detection task on dialogues in the EmotionLines dataset. We formulate this as a hierarchical network where network learns data representation at both utterance level and dialogue level. Our model is inspired by Hierarchical Attention network (HAN) and uses pre-trained word embeddings as features. We formulate emotion detection in dialogues as a sequence labeling problem to capture the dependencies among labels. We report the performance accuracy for four emotions (anger, joy, neutral and sadness). The model achieved unweighted accuracy of 55.38% on Friends test dataset and 56.73% on EmotionPush test dataset. We report an improvement of 22.51% in Friends dataset and 36.04% in EmotionPush dataset over baseline results.


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Wishful Thinking - Finding suggestions and ’buy’ wishes from product reviews
J. Ramanand | Krishna Bhavsar | Niranjan Pedanekar
Proceedings of the NAACL HLT 2010 Workshop on Computational Approaches to Analysis and Generation of Emotion in Text