Nishant Yadav


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Clustering-based Sampling for Few-Shot Cross-Domain Keyphrase Extraction
Prakamya Mishra | Lincy Pattanaik | Arunima Sundar | Nishant Yadav | Mayank Kulkarni
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EACL 2024

Keyphrase extraction is the task of identifying a set of keyphrases present in a document that captures its most salient topics. Scientific domain-specific pre-training has led to achieving state-of-the-art keyphrase extraction performance with a majority of benchmarks being within the domain. In this work, we explore how to effectively enable the cross-domain generalization capabilities of such models without requiring the same scale of data. We primarily focus on the few-shot setting in non-scientific domain datasets such as OpenKP from the Web domain & StackEx from the StackExchange forum. We propose to leverage topic information intrinsically available in the data, to build a novel clustering-based sampling approach that facilitates selecting a few samples to label from the target domain facilitating building robust and performant models. This approach leads to large gains in performance of up to 26.35 points in F1 when compared to selecting few-shot samples uniformly at random. We also explore the setting where we have access to labeled data from the model’s pretraining domain corpora and perform gradual training which involves slowly folding in target domain data to the source domain data. Here we demonstrate further improvements in the model performance by up to 12.76 F1 points.


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Efficient k-NN Search with Cross-Encoders using Adaptive Multi-Round CUR Decomposition
Nishant Yadav | Nicholas Monath | Manzil Zaheer | Andrew McCallum
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Cross-encoder models, which jointly encode and score a query-item pair, are prohibitively expensive for direct k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) search. Consequently, k-NN search typically employs a fast approximate retrieval (e.g. using BM25 or dual-encoder vectors), followed by reranking with a cross-encoder; however, the retrieval approximation often has detrimental recall regret. This problem is tackled by ANNCUR (Yadav et al., 2022), a recent work that employs a cross-encoder only, making search efficient using a relatively small number of anchor items, and a CUR matrix factorization. While ANNCUR’s one-time selection of anchors tends to approximate the cross-encoder distances on average, doing so forfeits the capacity to accurately estimate distances to items near the query, leading to regret in the crucial end-task: recall of top-k items. In this paper, we propose ADACUR, a method that adaptively, iteratively, and efficiently minimizes the approximation error for the practically important top-k neighbors. It does so by iteratively performing k-NN search using the anchors available so far, then adding these retrieved nearest neighbors to the anchor set for the next round. Empirically, on multiple datasets, in comparison to previous traditional and state-of-the-art methods such as ANNCUR and dual-encoder-based retrieve-and-rerank, our proposed approach ADACUR consistently reduces recall error—by up to 70% on the important k = 1 setting—while using no more compute than its competitors.


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Efficient Nearest Neighbor Search for Cross-Encoder Models using Matrix Factorization
Nishant Yadav | Nicholas Monath | Rico Angell | Manzil Zaheer | Andrew McCallum
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Efficient k-nearest neighbor search is a fundamental task, foundational for many problems in NLP. When the similarity is measured by dot-product between dual-encoder vectors or L2-distance, there already exist many scalable and efficient search methods. But not so when similarity is measured by more accurate and expensive black-box neural similarity models, such as cross-encoders, which jointly encode the query and candidate neighbor. The cross-encoders’ high computational cost typically limits their use to reranking candidates retrieved by a cheaper model, such as dual encoder or TF-IDF. However, the accuracy of such a two-stage approach is upper-bounded by the recall of the initial candidate set, and potentially requires additional training to align the auxiliary retrieval model with the cross-encoder model. In this paper, we present an approach that avoids the use of a dual-encoder for retrieval, relying solely on the cross-encoder. Retrieval is made efficient with CUR decomposition, a matrix decomposition approach that approximates all pairwise cross-encoder distances from a small subset of rows and columns of the distance matrix. Indexing items using our approach is computationally cheaper than training an auxiliary dual-encoder model through distillation. Empirically, for k > 10, our approach provides test-time recall-vs-computational cost trade-offs superior to the current widely-used methods that re-rank items retrieved using a dual-encoder or TF-IDF.


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Clustering-based Inference for Biomedical Entity Linking
Rico Angell | Nicholas Monath | Sunil Mohan | Nishant Yadav | Andrew McCallum
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Due to large number of entities in biomedical knowledge bases, only a small fraction of entities have corresponding labelled training data. This necessitates entity linking models which are able to link mentions of unseen entities using learned representations of entities. Previous approaches link each mention independently, ignoring the relationships within and across documents between the entity mentions. These relations can be very useful for linking mentions in biomedical text where linking decisions are often difficult due mentions having a generic or a highly specialized form. In this paper, we introduce a model in which linking decisions can be made not merely by linking to a knowledge base entity but also by grouping multiple mentions together via clustering and jointly making linking predictions. In experiments on the largest publicly available biomedical dataset, we improve the best independent prediction for entity linking by 3.0 points of accuracy, and our clustering-based inference model further improves entity linking by 2.3 points.

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Event and Entity Coreference using Trees to Encode Uncertainty in Joint Decisions
Nishant Yadav | Nicholas Monath | Rico Angell | Andrew McCallum
Proceedings of the Fourth Workshop on Computational Models of Reference, Anaphora and Coreference

Coreference decisions among event mentions and among co-occurring entity mentions are highly interdependent, thus motivating joint inference. Capturing the uncertainty over each variable can be crucial for inference among multiple dependent variables. Previous work on joint coreference employs heuristic approaches, lacking well-defined objectives, and lacking modeling of uncertainty on each side of the joint problem. We present a new approach of joint coreference, including (1) a formal cost function inspired by Dasgupta’s cost for hierarchical clustering, and (2) a representation for uncertainty of clustering of event and entity mentions, again based on a hierarchical structure. We describe an alternating optimization method for inference that when clustering event mentions, considers the uncertainty of the clustering of entity mentions and vice-versa. We show that our proposed joint model provides empirical advantages over state-of-the-art independent and joint models.

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SUBSUME: A Dataset for Subjective Summary Extraction from Wikipedia Documents
Nishant Yadav | Matteo Brucato | Anna Fariha | Oscar Youngquist | Julian Killingback | Alexandra Meliou | Peter Haas
Proceedings of the Third Workshop on New Frontiers in Summarization

Many applications require generation of summaries tailored to the user’s information needs, i.e., their intent. Methods that express intent via explicit user queries fall short when query interpretation is subjective. Several datasets exist for summarization with objective intents where, for each document and intent (e.g., “weather”), a single summary suffices for all users. No datasets exist, however, for subjective intents (e.g., “interesting places”) where different users will provide different summaries. We present SUBSUME, the first dataset for evaluation of SUBjective SUMmary Extraction systems. SUBSUME contains 2,200 (document, intent, summary) triplets over 48 Wikipedia pages, with ten intents of varying subjectivity, provided by 103 individuals over Mechanical Turk. We demonstrate statistically that the intents in SUBSUME vary systematically in subjectivity. To indicate SUBSUME’s usefulness, we explore a collection of baseline algorithms for subjective extractive summarization and show that (i) as expected, example-based approaches better capture subjective intents than query-based ones, and (ii) there is ample scope for improving upon the baseline algorithms, thereby motivating further research on this challenging problem.