Niyati Chhaya


2022

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CaM-Gen: Causally Aware Metric-Guided Text Generation
Navita Goyal | Roodram Paneri | Ayush Agarwal | Udit Kalani | Abhilasha Sancheti | Niyati Chhaya
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2022

Content is created for a well-defined purpose, often described by a metric or signal represented in the form of structured information. The relationship between the goal (metrics) of target content and the content itself is non-trivial. While large-scale language models show promising text generation capabilities, guiding the generated text with external metrics is challenging.These metrics and content tend to have inherent relationships and not all of them may be of consequence. We introduce CaM-Gen: Causally aware Generative Networks guided by user-defined target metrics incorporating the causal relationships between the metric and content features. We leverage causal inference techniques to identify causally significant aspects of a text that lead to the target metric and then explicitly guide generative models towards these by a feedback mechanism. We propose this mechanism for variational autoencoder and Transformer-based generative models. The proposed models beat baselines in terms of the target metric control while maintaining fluency and language quality of the generated text. To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the early attempts at controlled generation incorporating a metric guide using causal inference.

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Leveraging Mental Health Forums for User-level Depression Detection on Social Media
Sravani Boinepelli | Tathagata Raha | Harika Abburi | Pulkit Parikh | Niyati Chhaya | Vasudeva Varma
Proceedings of the Thirteenth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

The number of depression and suicide risk cases on social media platforms is ever-increasing, and the lack of depression detection mechanisms on these platforms is becoming increasingly apparent. A majority of work in this area has focused on leveraging linguistic features while dealing with small-scale datasets. However, one faces many obstacles when factoring into account the vastness and inherent imbalance of social media content. In this paper, we aim to optimize the performance of user-level depression classification to lessen the burden on computational resources. The resulting system executes in a quicker, more efficient manner, in turn making it suitable for deployment. To simulate a platform agnostic framework, we simultaneously replicate the size and composition of social media to identify victims of depression. We systematically design a solution that categorizes post embeddings, obtained by fine-tuning transformer models such as RoBERTa, and derives user-level representations using hierarchical attention networks. We also introduce a novel mental health dataset to enhance the performance of depression categorization. We leverage accounts of depression taken from this dataset to infuse domain-specific elements into our framework. Our proposed methods outperform numerous baselines across standard metrics for the task of depression detection in text.

2021

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AUTOSUMM: Automatic Model Creation for Text Summarization
Sharmila Reddy Nangi | Atharv Tyagi | Jay Mundra | Sagnik Mukherjee | Raj Snehal | Niyati Chhaya | Aparna Garimella
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Recent efforts to develop deep learning models for text generation tasks such as extractive and abstractive summarization have resulted in state-of-the-art performances on various datasets. However, obtaining the best model configuration for a given dataset requires an extensive knowledge of deep learning specifics like model architecture, tuning parameters etc., and is often extremely challenging for a non-expert. In this paper, we propose methods to automatically create deep learning models for the tasks of extractive and abstractive text summarization. Based on the recent advances in Automated Machine Learning and the success of large language models such as BERT and GPT-2 in encoding knowledge, we use a combination of Neural Architecture Search (NAS) and Knowledge Distillation (KD) techniques to perform model search and compression using the vast knowledge provided by these language models to develop smaller, customized models for any given dataset. We present extensive empirical results to illustrate the effectiveness of our model creation methods in terms of inference time and model size, while achieving near state-of-the-art performances in terms of accuracy across a range of datasets.

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He is very intelligent, she is very beautiful? On Mitigating Social Biases in Language Modelling and Generation
Aparna Garimella | Akhash Amarnath | Kiran Kumar | Akash Pramod Yalla | Anandhavelu N | Niyati Chhaya | Balaji Vasan Srinivasan
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL-IJCNLP 2021

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Counterfactuals to Control Latent Disentangled Text Representations for Style Transfer
Sharmila Reddy Nangi | Niyati Chhaya | Sopan Khosla | Nikhil Kaushik | Harshit Nyati
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 2: Short Papers)

Disentanglement of latent representations into content and style spaces has been a commonly employed method for unsupervised text style transfer. These techniques aim to learn the disentangled representations and tweak them to modify the style of a sentence. In this paper, we propose a counterfactual-based method to modify the latent representation, by posing a ‘what-if’ scenario. This simple and disciplined approach also enables a fine-grained control on the transfer strength. We conduct experiments with the proposed methodology on multiple attribute transfer tasks like Sentiment, Formality and Excitement to support our hypothesis.

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EmpathBERT: A BERT-based Framework for Demographic-aware Empathy Prediction
Bhanu Prakash Reddy Guda | Aparna Garimella | Niyati Chhaya
Proceedings of the 16th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Main Volume

Affect preferences vary with user demographics, and tapping into demographic information provides important cues about the users’ language preferences. In this paper, we utilize the user demographics and propose EmpathBERT, a demographic-aware framework for empathy prediction based on BERT. Through several comparative experiments, we show that EmpathBERT surpasses traditional machine learning and deep learning models, and illustrate the importance of user demographics, for predicting empathy and distress in user responses to stimulative news articles. We also highlight the importance of affect information in the responses by developing affect-aware models to predict user demographic attributes.

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WikiTalkEdit: A Dataset for modeling Editors’ behaviors on Wikipedia
Kokil Jaidka | Andrea Ceolin | Iknoor Singh | Niyati Chhaya | Lyle Ungar
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

This study introduces and analyzes WikiTalkEdit, a dataset of conversations and edit histories from Wikipedia, for research in online cooperation and conversation modeling. The dataset comprises dialog triplets from the Wikipedia Talk pages, and editing actions on the corresponding articles being discussed. We show how the data supports the classic understanding of style matching, where positive emotion and the use of first-person pronouns predict a positive emotional change in a Wikipedia contributor. However, they do not predict editorial behavior. On the other hand, feedback invoking evidentiality and criticism, and references to Wikipedia’s community norms, is more likely to persuade the contributor to perform edits but is less likely to lead to a positive emotion. We developed baseline classifiers trained on pre-trained RoBERTa features that can predict editorial change with an F1 score of .54, as compared to an F1 score of .66 for predicting emotional change. A diagnostic analysis of persisting errors is also provided. We conclude with possible applications and recommendations for future work. The dataset is publicly available for the research community at https://github.com/kj2013/WikiTalkEdit/.

2020

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Semi-supervised Multi-task Learning for Multi-label Fine-grained Sexism Classification
Harika Abburi | Pulkit Parikh | Niyati Chhaya | Vasudeva Varma
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Sexism, a form of oppression based on one’s sex, manifests itself in numerous ways and causes enormous suffering. In view of the growing number of experiences of sexism reported online, categorizing these recollections automatically can assist the fight against sexism, as it can facilitate effective analyses by gender studies researchers and government officials involved in policy making. In this paper, we investigate the fine-grained, multi-label classification of accounts (reports) of sexism. To the best of our knowledge, we work with considerably more categories of sexism than any published work through our 23-class problem formulation. Moreover, we propose a multi-task approach for fine-grained multi-label sexism classification that leverages several supporting tasks without incurring any manual labeling cost. Unlabeled accounts of sexism are utilized through unsupervised learning to help construct our multi-task setup. We also devise objective functions that exploit label correlations in the training data explicitly. Multiple proposed methods outperform the state-of-the-art for multi-label sexism classification on a recently released dataset across five standard metrics.

2019

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DialogueGCN: A Graph Convolutional Neural Network for Emotion Recognition in Conversation
Deepanway Ghosal | Navonil Majumder | Soujanya Poria | Niyati Chhaya | Alexander Gelbukh
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Emotion recognition in conversation (ERC) has received much attention, lately, from researchers due to its potential widespread applications in diverse areas, such as health-care, education, and human resources. In this paper, we present Dialogue Graph Convolutional Network (DialogueGCN), a graph neural network based approach to ERC. We leverage self and inter-speaker dependency of the interlocutors to model conversational context for emotion recognition. Through the graph network, DialogueGCN addresses context propagation issues present in the current RNN-based methods. We empirically show that this method alleviates such issues, while outperforming the current state of the art on a number of benchmark emotion classification datasets.

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Multi-label Categorization of Accounts of Sexism using a Neural Framework
Pulkit Parikh | Harika Abburi | Pinkesh Badjatiya | Radhika Krishnan | Niyati Chhaya | Manish Gupta | Vasudeva Varma
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Sexism, an injustice that subjects women and girls to enormous suffering, manifests in blatant as well as subtle ways. In the wake of growing documentation of experiences of sexism on the web, the automatic categorization of accounts of sexism has the potential to assist social scientists and policy makers in utilizing such data to study and counter sexism better. The existing work on sexism classification, which is different from sexism detection, has certain limitations in terms of the categories of sexism used and/or whether they can co-occur. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work on the multi-label classification of sexism of any kind(s), and we contribute the largest dataset for sexism categorization. We develop a neural solution for this multi-label classification that can combine sentence representations obtained using models such as BERT with distributional and linguistic word embeddings using a flexible, hierarchical architecture involving recurrent components and optional convolutional ones. Further, we leverage unlabeled accounts of sexism to infuse domain-specific elements into our framework. The best proposed method outperforms several deep learning as well as traditional machine learning baselines by an appreciable margin.

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Generating Formality-Tuned Summaries Using Input-Dependent Rewards
Kushal Chawla | Balaji Vasan Srinivasan | Niyati Chhaya
Proceedings of the 23rd Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning (CoNLL)

Abstractive text summarization aims at generating human-like summaries by understanding and paraphrasing the given input content. Recent efforts based on sequence-to-sequence networks only allow the generation of a single summary. However, it is often desirable to accommodate the psycho-linguistic preferences of the intended audience while generating the summaries. In this work, we present a reinforcement learning based approach to generate formality-tailored summaries for an input article. Our novel input-dependent reward function aids in training the model with stylistic feedback on sampled and ground-truth summaries together. Once trained, the same model can generate formal and informal summary variants. Our automated and qualitative evaluations show the viability of the proposed framework.

2018

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Frustrated, Polite, or Formal: Quantifying Feelings and Tone in Email
Niyati Chhaya | Kushal Chawla | Tanya Goyal | Projjal Chanda | Jaya Singh
Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Computational Modeling of People’s Opinions, Personality, and Emotions in Social Media

Email conversations are the primary mode of communication in enterprises. The email content expresses an individual’s needs, requirements and intentions. Affective information in the email text can be used to get an insight into the sender’s mood or emotion. We present a novel approach to model human frustration in text. We identify linguistic features that influence human perception of frustration and model it as a supervised learning task. The paper provides a detailed comparison across traditional regression and word distribution-based models. We report a mean-squared error (MSE) of 0.018 against human-annotated frustration for the best performing model. The approach establishes the importance of affect features in frustration prediction for email data. We further evaluate the efficacy of the proposed feature set and model in predicting other tone or affects in text, namely formality and politeness; results demonstrate a comparable performance against the state-of-the-art baselines.

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Diachronic degradation of language models: Insights from social media
Kokil Jaidka | Niyati Chhaya | Lyle Ungar
Proceedings of the 56th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)

Natural languages change over time because they evolve to the needs of their users and the socio-technological environment. This study investigates the diachronic accuracy of pre-trained language models for downstream tasks in machine learning and user profiling. It asks the question: given that the social media platform and its users remain the same, how is language changing over time? How can these differences be used to track the changes in the affect around a particular topic? To our knowledge, this is the first study to show that it is possible to measure diachronic semantic drifts within social media and within the span of a few years.

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Aff2Vec: Affect–Enriched Distributional Word Representations
Sopan Khosla | Niyati Chhaya | Kushal Chawla
Proceedings of the 27th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Human communication includes information, opinions and reactions. Reactions are often captured by the affective-messages in written as well as verbal communications. While there has been work in affect modeling and to some extent affective content generation, the area of affective word distributions is not well studied. Synsets and lexica capture semantic relationships across words. These models, however, lack in encoding affective or emotional word interpretations. Our proposed model, Aff2Vec, provides a method for enriched word embeddings that are representative of affective interpretations of words. Aff2Vec outperforms the state-of-the-art in intrinsic word-similarity tasks. Further, the use of Aff2Vec representations outperforms baseline embeddings in downstream natural language understanding tasks including sentiment analysis, personality detection, and frustration prediction.