Nojun Kwak


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Robust Multi-bit Natural Language Watermarking through Invariant Features
KiYoon Yoo | Wonhyuk Ahn | Jiho Jang | Nojun Kwak
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Recent years have witnessed a proliferation of valuable original natural language contents found in subscription-based media outlets, web novel platforms, and outputs of large language models. However, these contents are susceptible to illegal piracy and potential misuse without proper security measures. This calls for a secure watermarking system to guarantee copyright protection through leakage tracing or ownership identification. To effectively combat piracy and protect copyrights, a multi-bit watermarking framework should be able to embed adequate bits of information and extract the watermarks in a robust manner despite possible corruption. In this work, we explore ways to advance both payload and robustness by following a well-known proposition from image watermarking and identify features in natural language that are invariant to minor corruption. Through a systematic analysis of the possible sources of errors, we further propose a corruption-resistant infill model. Our full method improves upon the previous work on robustness by +16.8% point on average on four datasets, three corruption types, and two corruption ratios


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Korean Language Modeling via Syntactic Guide
Hyeondey Kim | Seonhoon Kim | Inho Kang | Nojun Kwak | Pascale Fung
Proceedings of the Thirteenth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

While pre-trained language models play a vital role in modern language processing tasks, but not every language can benefit from them. Most existing research on pre-trained language models focuses primarily on widely-used languages such as English, Chinese, and Indo-European languages. Additionally, such schemes usually require extensive computational resources alongside a large amount of data, which is infeasible for less-widely used languages. We aim to address this research niche by building a language model that understands the linguistic phenomena in the target language which can be trained with low-resources. In this paper, we discuss Korean language modeling, specifically methods for language representation and pre-training methods. With our Korean-specific language representation, we are able to build more powerful language models for Korean understanding, even with fewer resources. The paper proposes chunk-wise reconstruction of the Korean language based on a widely used transformer architecture and bidirectional language representation. We also introduce morphological features such as Part-of-Speech (PoS) into the language understanding by leveraging such information during the pre-training. Our experiment results prove that the proposed methods improve the model performance of the investigated Korean language understanding tasks.

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Detection of Adversarial Examples in Text Classification: Benchmark and Baseline via Robust Density Estimation
KiYoon Yoo | Jangho Kim | Jiho Jang | Nojun Kwak
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2022

Word-level adversarial attacks have shown success in NLP models, drastically decreasing the performance of transformer-based models in recent years. As a countermeasure, adversarial defense has been explored, but relatively few efforts have been made to detect adversarial examples. However, detecting adversarial examples may be crucial for automated tasks (e.g. review sentiment analysis) that wish to amass information about a certain population and additionally be a step towards a robust defense system. To this end, we release a dataset for four popular attack methods on four datasets and four models to encourage further research in this field. Along with it, we propose a competitive baseline based on density estimation that has the highest auc on 29 out of 30 dataset-attack-model combinations. The source code is released (

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Backdoor Attacks in Federated Learning by Rare Embeddings and Gradient Ensembling
Ki Yoon Yoo | Nojun Kwak
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Recent advances in federated learning have demonstrated its promising capability to learn on decentralized datasets. However, a considerable amount of work has raised concerns due to the potential risks of adversaries participating in the framework to poison the global model for an adversarial purpose. This paper investigates the feasibility of model poisoning for backdoor attacks through rare word embeddings of NLP models. In text classification, less than 1% of adversary clients suffices to manipulate the model output without any drop in the performance of clean sentences. For a less complex dataset, a mere 0.1% of adversary clients is enough to poison the global model effectively. We also propose a technique specialized in the federated learning scheme called gradient ensemble, which enhances the backdoor performance in all experimental settings.


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Textbook Question Answering with Multi-modal Context Graph Understanding and Self-supervised Open-set Comprehension
Daesik Kim | Seonhoon Kim | Nojun Kwak
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

In this work, we introduce a novel algorithm for solving the textbook question answering (TQA) task which describes more realistic QA problems compared to other recent tasks. We mainly focus on two related issues with analysis of the TQA dataset. First, solving the TQA problems requires to comprehend multi-modal contexts in complicated input data. To tackle this issue of extracting knowledge features from long text lessons and merging them with visual features, we establish a context graph from texts and images, and propose a new module f-GCN based on graph convolutional networks (GCN). Second, scientific terms are not spread over the chapters and subjects are split in the TQA dataset. To overcome this so called ‘out-of-domain’ issue, before learning QA problems, we introduce a novel self-supervised open-set learning process without any annotations. The experimental results show that our model significantly outperforms prior state-of-the-art methods. Moreover, ablation studies validate that both methods of incorporating f-GCN for extracting knowledge from multi-modal contexts and our newly proposed self-supervised learning process are effective for TQA problems.