Ori Ernst


2023

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Re-Examining Summarization Evaluation across Multiple Quality Criteria
Ori Ernst | Ori Shapira | Ido Dagan | Ran Levy
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

The common practice for assessing automatic evaluation metrics is to measure the correlation between their induced system rankings and those obtained by reliable human evaluation, where a higher correlation indicates a better metric. Yet, an intricate setting arises when an NLP task is evaluated by multiple Quality Criteria (QCs), like for text summarization where prominent criteria including relevance, consistency, fluency and coherence. In this paper, we challenge the soundness of this methodology when multiple QCs are involved, concretely for the summarization case. First, we show that the allegedly best metrics for certain QCs actually do not perform well, failing to detect even drastic summary corruptions with respect to the considered QC. To explain this, we show that some of the high correlations obtained in the multi-QC setup are spurious. Finally, we propose a procedure that may help detecting this effect. Overall, our findings highlight the need for further investigating metric evaluation methodologies for the multiple-QC case.

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OpenAsp: A Benchmark for Multi-document Open Aspect-based Summarization
Shmuel Amar | Liat Schiff | Ori Ernst | Asi Shefer | Ori Shapira | Ido Dagan
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

The performance of automatic summarization models has improved dramatically in recent years. Yet, there is still a gap in meeting specific information needs of users in real-world scenarios, particularly when a targeted summary is sought, such as in the useful aspect-based summarization setting targeted in this paper. Previous datasets and studies for this setting have predominantly concentrated on a limited set of pre-defined aspects, focused solely on single document inputs, or relied on synthetic data. To advance research on more realistic scenarios, we introduce OpenAsp, a benchmark for multi-document open aspect-based summarization. This benchmark is created using a novel and cost-effective annotation protocol, by which an open aspect dataset is derived from existing generic multi-document summarization datasets. We analyze the properties of OpenAsp showcasing its high-quality content. Further, we show that the realistic open-aspect setting realized in OpenAsp poses a challenge for current state-of-the-art summarization models, as well as for large language models.

2022

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Controlled Text Reduction
Aviv Slobodkin | Paul Roit | Eran Hirsch | Ori Ernst | Ido Dagan
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Producing a reduced version of a source text, as in generic or focused summarization, inherently involves two distinct subtasks: deciding on targeted content and generating a coherent text conveying it. While some popular approaches address summarization as a single end-to-end task, prominent works support decomposed modeling for individual subtasks. Further, semi-automated text reduction is also very appealing, where users may identify targeted content while models would generate a corresponding coherent summary. In this paper, we focus on the second subtask, of generating coherent text given pre-selected content. Concretely, we formalize Controlled Text Reduction as a standalone task, whose input is a source text with marked spans of targeted content (“highlighting”).A model then needs to generate a coherent text that includes all and only the target information.We advocate the potential of such models, both for modular fully-automatic summarization, as well as for semi-automated human-in-the-loop use cases.Facilitating proper research, we crowdsource high-quality dev and test datasets for the task. Further, we automatically generate a larger “silver” training dataset from available summarization benchmarks, leveraging a pretrained summary-source alignment model.Finally, employing these datasets, we present a supervised baseline model, showing promising results and insightful analyses.

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How “Multi” is Multi-Document Summarization?
Ruben Wolhandler | Arie Cattan | Ori Ernst | Ido Dagan
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

The task of multi-document summarization (MDS) aims at models that, given multiple documents as input, are able to generate a summary that combines disperse information, originally spread __across__ these documents. Accordingly, it is expected that both reference summaries in MDS datasets, as well as system summaries, would indeed be based on such dispersed information. In this paper, we argue for quantifying and assessing this expectation. To that end, we propose an automated measure for evaluating the degree to which a summary is “disperse”, in the sense of the number of source documents needed to cover its content. We apply our measure to empirically analyze several popular MDS datasets, with respect to their reference summaries, as well as the output of state-of-the-art systems. Our results show that certain MDS datasets barely require combining information from multiple documents, where a single document often covers the full summary content. Overall, we advocate using our metric for assessing and improving the degree to which summarization datasets require combining multi-document information, and similarly how summarization models actually meet this challenge.

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Proposition-Level Clustering for Multi-Document Summarization
Ori Ernst | Avi Caciularu | Ori Shapira | Ramakanth Pasunuru | Mohit Bansal | Jacob Goldberger | Ido Dagan
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Text clustering methods were traditionally incorporated into multi-document summarization (MDS) as a means for coping with considerable information repetition. Particularly, clusters were leveraged to indicate information saliency as well as to avoid redundancy. Such prior methods focused on clustering sentences, even though closely related sentences usually contain also non-aligned parts. In this work, we revisit the clustering approach, grouping together sub-sentential propositions, aiming at more precise information alignment. Specifically, our method detects salient propositions, clusters them into paraphrastic clusters, and generates a representative sentence for each cluster via text fusion. Our summarization method improves over the previous state-of-the-art MDS method in the DUC 2004 and TAC 2011 datasets, both in automatic ROUGE scores and human preference.

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Extending Multi-Text Sentence Fusion Resources via Pyramid Annotations
Daniela Brook Weiss | Paul Roit | Ori Ernst | Ido Dagan
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

NLP models that process multiple texts often struggle in recognizing corresponding and salient information that is often differently phrased, and consolidating the redundancies across texts. To facilitate research of such challenges, the sentence fusion task was proposed, yet previous datasets for this task were very limited in their size and scope. In this paper, we revisit and substantially extend previous dataset creation efforts. With careful modifications, relabeling, and employing complementing data sources, we were able to more than triple the size of a notable earlier dataset. Moreover, we show that our extended version uses more representative texts for multi-document tasks and provides a more diverse training set, which substantially improves model performance.

2021

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Summary-Source Proposition-level Alignment: Task, Datasets and Supervised Baseline
Ori Ernst | Ori Shapira | Ramakanth Pasunuru | Michael Lepioshkin | Jacob Goldberger | Mohit Bansal | Ido Dagan
Proceedings of the 25th Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning

Aligning sentences in a reference summary with their counterparts in source documents was shown as a useful auxiliary summarization task, notably for generating training data for salience detection. Despite its assessed utility, the alignment step was mostly approached with heuristic unsupervised methods, typically ROUGE-based, and was never independently optimized or evaluated. In this paper, we propose establishing summary-source alignment as an explicit task, while introducing two major novelties: (1) applying it at the more accurate proposition span level, and (2) approaching it as a supervised classification task. To that end, we created a novel training dataset for proposition-level alignment, derived automatically from available summarization evaluation data. In addition, we crowdsourced dev and test datasets, enabling model development and proper evaluation. Utilizing these data, we present a supervised proposition alignment baseline model, showing improved alignment-quality over the unsupervised approach.

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QA-Align: Representing Cross-Text Content Overlap by Aligning Question-Answer Propositions
Daniela Brook Weiss | Paul Roit | Ayal Klein | Ori Ernst | Ido Dagan
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Multi-text applications, such as multi-document summarization, are typically required to model redundancies across related texts. Current methods confronting consolidation struggle to fuse overlapping information. In order to explicitly represent content overlap, we propose to align predicate-argument relations across texts, providing a potential scaffold for information consolidation. We go beyond clustering coreferring mentions, and instead model overlap with respect to redundancy at a propositional level, rather than merely detecting shared referents. Our setting exploits QA-SRL, utilizing question-answer pairs to capture predicate-argument relations, facilitating laymen annotation of cross-text alignments. We employ crowd-workers for constructing a dataset of QA-based alignments, and present a baseline QA alignment model trained over our dataset. Analyses show that our new task is semantically challenging, capturing content overlap beyond lexical similarity and complements cross-document coreference with proposition-level links, offering potential use for downstream tasks.

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iFacetSum: Coreference-based Interactive Faceted Summarization for Multi-Document Exploration
Eran Hirsch | Alon Eirew | Ori Shapira | Avi Caciularu | Arie Cattan | Ori Ernst | Ramakanth Pasunuru | Hadar Ronen | Mohit Bansal | Ido Dagan
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing: System Demonstrations

We introduce iFᴀᴄᴇᴛSᴜᴍ, a web application for exploring topical document collections. iFᴀᴄᴇᴛSᴜᴍ integrates interactive summarization together with faceted search, by providing a novel faceted navigation scheme that yields abstractive summaries for the user’s selections. This approach offers both a comprehensive overview as well as particular details regard-ing subtopics of choice. The facets are automatically produced based on cross-document coreference pipelines, rendering generic concepts, entities and statements surfacing in the source texts. We analyze the effectiveness of our application through small-scale user studies that suggest the usefulness of our tool.