Event and argument role detection are frequently conceived as separate tasks. In this work we conceive both processes as one taskin a hybrid event detection approach. Its main component is based on automatic keyword extraction (AKE) using the self-attention mechanism of a BERT transformer model. As a bottleneck for AKE is defining the threshold of the attention values, we propose a novel method for automatic self-attention thresholdselection. It is fueled by core event information, or simply the verb and its arguments as the backbone of an event. These are outputted by a knowledge-based syntactic parser. In a secondstep the event core is enriched with other semantically salient words provided by the transformer model. Furthermore, we propose an automatic self-attention layer and head selectionmechanism, by analyzing which self-attention cells in the BERT transformer contribute most to the hybrid event detection and which linguistic tasks they represent. This approach was integrated in a pipeline event extraction approachand outperforms three state of the art multi-task event extraction methods.
In this paper we present baseline results for Event Coreference Resolution (ECR) in Dutch using gold-standard (i.e non-predicted) event mentions. A newly developed benchmark dataset allows us to properly investigate the possibility of creating ECR systems for both within and cross-document coreference. We give an overview of the state of the art for ECR in other languages, as well as a detailed overview of existing ECR resources. Afterwards, we provide a comparative report on our own dataset. We apply a significant number of approaches that have been shown to attain good results for English ECR including feature-based models, monolingual transformer language models and multilingual language models. The best results were obtained using the monolingual BERTje model. Finally, results for all models are thoroughly analysed and visualised, as to provide insight into the inner workings of ECR and long-distance semantic NLP tasks in general.
This paper reports on experiments for cross-lingual transfer using the anchor-based approach of Schuster et al. (2019) for English and a low-resourced language, namely Hindi. For the sake of comparison, we also evaluate the approach on three very different higher-resourced languages, viz. Dutch, Russian and Chinese. Initially designed for ELMo embeddings, we analyze the approach for the more recent BERT family of transformers for a variety of tasks, both mono and cross-lingual. The results largely prove that like most other cross-lingual transfer approaches, the static anchor approach is underwhelming for the low-resource language, while performing adequately for the higher resourced ones. We attempt to provide insights into both the quality of the anchors, and the performance for low-shot cross-lingual transfer to better understand this performance gap. We make the extracted anchors and the modified train and test sets available for future research at https://github.com/pranaydeeps/Vyaapak
While aspect-based sentiment analysis of user-generated content has received a lot of attention in the past years, emotion detection at the aspect level has been relatively unexplored. Moreover, given the rise of more visual content on social media platforms, we want to meet the ever-growing share of multimodal content. In this paper, we present a multimodal dataset for Aspect-Based Emotion Analysis (ABEA). Additionally, we take the first steps in investigating the utility of multimodal coreference resolution in an ABEA framework. The presented dataset consists of 4,900 comments on 175 images and is annotated with aspect and emotion categories and the emotional dimensions of valence and arousal. Our preliminary experiments suggest that ABEA does not benefit from multimodal coreference resolution, and that aspect and emotion classification only requires textual information. However, when more specific information about the aspects is desired, image recognition could be essential.
In this paper, we present the SentEMO platform, a tool that provides aspect-based sentiment analysis and emotion detection of unstructured text data such as reviews, emails and customer care conversations. Currently, models have been trained for five domains and one general domain and are implemented in a pipeline approach, where the output of one model serves as the input for the next. The results are presented in three dashboards, allowing companies to gain more insights into what stakeholders think of their products and services. The SentEMO platform is available at https://sentemo.ugent.be
As emotion analysis in text has gained a lot of attention in the field of natural language processing, differences in emotion expression across languages could have consequences for how emotion detection models work. We evaluate the language-dependence of an mBERT-based emotion detection model by comparing language identification performance before and after fine-tuning on emotion detection, and performing (adjusted) zero-shot experiments to assess whether emotion detection models rely on language-specific information. When dealing with typologically dissimilar languages, we found evidence for the language-dependence of emotion detection.
This paper presents the results that were obtained from the WASSA 2021 shared task on predicting empathy and emotions. The participants were given access to a dataset comprising empathic reactions to news stories where harm is done to a person, group, or other. These reactions consist of essays, Batson empathic concern, and personal distress scores, and the dataset was further extended with news articles, person-level demographic information (age, gender, ethnicity, income, education level), and personality information. Additionally, emotion labels, namely Ekman’s six basic emotions, were added to the essays at both the document and sentence level. Participation was encouraged in two tracks: predicting empathy and predicting emotion categories. In total five teams participated in the shared task. We summarize the methods and resources used by the participating teams.
We investigate the feasibility of defining sentiment evoked by fine-grained news events. Our research question is based on the premise that methods for detecting implicit sentiment in news can be a key driver of content diversity, which is one way to mitigate the detrimental effects of filter bubbles that recommenders based on collaborative filtering may produce. Our experiments are based on 1,735 news articles from major Flemish newspapers that were manually annotated, with high agreement, for implicit sentiment. While lexical resources prove insufficient for sentiment analysis in this data genre, our results demonstrate that machine learning models based on SVM and BERT are able to automatically infer the implicit sentiment evoked by news events.
In a first step towards improving Dutch emotion detection, we try to combine the Dutch transformer models BERTje and RobBERT with lexicon-based methods. We propose two architectures: one in which lexicon information is directly injected into the transformer model and a meta-learning approach where predictions from transformers are combined with lexicon features. The models are tested on 1,000 Dutch tweets and 1,000 captions from TV-shows which have been manually annotated with emotion categories and dimensions. We find that RobBERT clearly outperforms BERTje, but that directly adding lexicon information to transformers does not improve performance. In the meta-learning approach, lexicon information does have a positive effect on BERTje, but not on RobBERT. This suggests that more emotional information is already contained within this latter language model.
A core task in information extraction is event detection that identifies event triggers in sentences that are typically classified into event types. In this study an event is considered as the unit to measure diversity and similarity in news articles in the framework of a news recommendation system. Current typology-based event detection approaches fail to handle the variety of events expressed in real-world situations. To overcome this, we aim to perform event salience classification and explore whether a transformer model is capable of classifying new information into less and more general prominence classes. After comparing a Support Vector Machine (SVM) baseline and our transformer-based classifier performances on several event span formats, we conceived multi-word event spans as syntactic clauses. Those are fed into our prominence classifier which is fine-tuned on pre-trained Dutch BERT word embeddings. On top of that we outperform a pipeline of a Conditional Random Field (CRF) approach to event-trigger word detection and the BERT-based classifier. To the best of our knowledge we present the first event extraction approach that combines an expert-based syntactic parser with a transformer-based classifier for Dutch.
While it has been claimed that anaphora or coreference resolution plays an important role in opinion mining, it is not clear to what extent coreference resolution actually boosts performance, if at all. In this paper, we investigate the potential added value of coreference resolution for the aspect-based sentiment analysis of restaurant reviews in two languages, English and Dutch. We focus on the task of aspect category classification and investigate whether including coreference information prior to classification to resolve implicit aspect mentions is beneficial. Because coreference resolution is not a solved task in NLP, we rely on both automatically-derived and gold-standard coreference relations, allowing us to investigate the true upper bound. By training a classifier on a combination of lexical and semantic features, we show that resolving the coreferential relations prior to classification is beneficial in a joint optimization setup. However, this is only the case when relying on gold-standard relations and the result is more outspoken for English than for Dutch. When validating the optimal models, however, we found that only the Dutch pipeline is able to achieve a satisfying performance on a held-out test set and does so regardless of whether coreference information was included.
Automated writing evaluation is a popular research field, but the main focus has been on evaluating argumentative essays. In this paper, we consider a different genre, namely précis texts. A précis is a written text that provides a coherent summary of main points of a spoken or written text. We present a corpus of English précis texts which all received a grade assigned by a highly-experienced English language teacher and were subsequently annotated following an exhaustive error typology. With this corpus we trained a machine learning model which relies on a number of linguistic, automatic summarization and AWE features. Our results reveal that this model is able to predict the grade of précis texts with only a moderate error margin.
Seeing the myriad of existing emotion models, with the categorical versus dimensional opposition the most important dividing line, building an emotion-annotated corpus requires some well thought-out strategies concerning framework choice. In our work on automatic emotion detection in Dutch texts, we investigate this problem by means of two case studies. We find that the labels joy, love, anger, sadness and fear are well-suited to annotate texts coming from various domains and topics, but that the connotation of the labels strongly depends on the origin of the texts. Moreover, it seems that information is lost when an emotional state is forcedly classified in a limited set of categories, indicating that a bi-representational format is desirable when creating an emotion corpus.
One of the main characteristics of social media data is the use of non-standard language. Since NLP tools have been trained on traditional text material their performance drops when applied to social media data. One way to overcome this is to first perform text normalization. In this work, we apply text normalization to noisy English and Dutch text coming from different social media genres: text messages, message board posts and tweets. We consider the normalization task as a Machine Translation problem and test the two leading paradigms: statistical and neural machine translation. For SMT we explore the added value of varying background corpora for training the language model. For NMT we have a look at data augmentation since the parallel datasets we are working with are limited in size. Our results reveal that when relying on SMT to perform the normalization it is beneficial to use a background corpus that is close to the genre you are normalizing. Regarding NMT, we find that the translations - or normalizations - coming out of this model are far from perfect and that for a low-resource language like Dutch adding additional training data works better than artificially augmenting the data.
One of the most persistent characteristics of written user-generated content (UGC) is the use of non-standard words. This characteristic contributes to an increased difficulty to automatically process and analyze UGC. Text normalization is the task of transforming lexical variants to their canonical forms and is often used as a pre-processing step for conventional NLP tasks in order to overcome the performance drop that NLP systems experience when applied to UGC. In this work, we follow a Neural Machine Translation approach to text normalization. To train such an encoder-decoder model, large parallel training corpora of sentence pairs are required. However, obtaining large data sets with UGC and their normalized version is not trivial, especially for languages other than English. In this paper, we explore how to overcome this data bottleneck for Dutch, a low-resource language. We start off with a small publicly available parallel Dutch data set comprising three UGC genres and compare two different approaches. The first is to manually normalize and add training data, a money and time-consuming task. The second approach is a set of data augmentation techniques which increase data size by converting existing resources into synthesized non-standard forms. Our results reveal that, while the different approaches yield similar results regarding the normalization issues in the test set, they also introduce a large amount of over-normalizations.
Detecting event mentions is the first step in event extraction from text and annotating them is a notoriously difficult task. Evaluating annotator consistency is crucial when building datasets for mention detection. When event mentions are allowed to cover many tokens, annotators may disagree on their span, which means that overlapping annotations may then refer to the same event or to different events. This paper explores different fuzzy-matching functions which aim to resolve this ambiguity. The functions extract the sets of syntactic heads present in the annotations, use the Dice coefficient to measure the similarity between sets and return a judgment based on a given threshold. The functions are tested against the judgment of a human evaluator and a comparison is made between sets of tokens and sets of syntactic heads. The best-performing function is a head-based function that is found to agree with the human evaluator in 89% of cases.
This paper presents an emotion classification system for English tweets, submitted for the SemEval shared task on Affect in Tweets, subtask 5: Detecting Emotions. The system combines lexicon, n-gram, style, syntactic and semantic features. For this multi-class multi-label problem, we created a classifier chain. This is an ensemble of eleven binary classifiers, one for each possible emotion category, where each model gets the predictions of the preceding models as additional features. The predicted labels are combined to get a multi-label representation of the predictions. Our system was ranked eleventh among thirty five participating teams, with a Jaccard accuracy of 52.0% and macro- and micro-average F1-scores of 49.3% and 64.0%, respectively.
Past shared tasks on emotions use data with both overt expressions of emotions (I am so happy to see you!) as well as subtle expressions where the emotions have to be inferred, for instance from event descriptions. Further, most datasets do not focus on the cause or the stimulus of the emotion. Here, for the first time, we propose a shared task where systems have to predict the emotions in a large automatically labeled dataset of tweets without access to words denoting emotions. Based on this intention, we call this the Implicit Emotion Shared Task (IEST) because the systems have to infer the emotion mostly from the context. Every tweet has an occurrence of an explicit emotion word that is masked. The tweets are collected in a manner such that they are likely to include a description of the cause of the emotion – the stimulus. Altogether, 30 teams submitted results which range from macro F1 scores of 21 % to 71 %. The baseline (Max-Ent bag of words and bigrams) obtains an F1 score of 60 % which was available to the participants during the development phase. A study with human annotators suggests that automatic methods outperform human predictions, possibly by honing into subtle textual clues not used by humans. Corpora, resources, and results are available at the shared task website at http://implicitemotions.wassa2018.com.
This paper presents an integrated ABSA pipeline for Dutch that has been developed and tested on qualitative user feedback coming from three domains: retail, banking and human resources. The two latter domains provide service-oriented data, which has not been investigated before in ABSA. By performing in-domain and cross-domain experiments the validity of our approach was investigated. We show promising results for the three ABSA subtasks, aspect term extraction, aspect category classification and aspect polarity classification.
The fine-grained task of automatically detecting all sentiment expressions within a given document and the aspects to which they refer is known as aspect-based sentiment analysis. In this paper we present the first full aspect-based sentiment analysis pipeline for Dutch and apply it to customer reviews. To this purpose, we collected reviews from two different domains, i.e. restaurant and smartphone reviews. Both corpora have been manually annotated using newly developed guidelines that comply to standard practices in the field. For our experimental pipeline we perceive aspect-based sentiment analysis as a task consisting of three main subtasks which have to be tackled incrementally: aspect term extraction, aspect category classification and polarity classification. First experiments on our Dutch restaurant corpus reveal that this is indeed a feasible approach that yields promising results.
In this paper we present a Dutch and English dataset that can serve as a gold standard for evaluating text normalization approaches. With the combination of text messages, message board posts and tweets, these datasets represent a variety of user generated content. All data was manually normalized to their standard form using newly-developed guidelines. We perform automatic lexical normalization experiments on these datasets using statistical machine translation techniques. We focus on both the word and character level and find that we can improve the BLEU score with ca. 20% for both languages. In order for this user generated content data to be released publicly to the research community some issues first need to be resolved. These are discussed in closer detail by focussing on the current legislation and by investigating previous similar data collection projects. With this discussion we hope to shed some light on various difficulties researchers are facing when trying to share social media data.
In this paper we present the first freely available corpus of Dutch text messages containing data originating from the Netherlands and Flanders. This corpus has been collected in the framework of the SoNaR project and constitutes a viable part of this 500-million-word corpus. About 53,000 text messages were collected on a large scale, based on voluntary donations. These messages will be distributed as such. In this paper we focus on the data collection processes involved and after studying the effect of media coverage we show that especially free publicity in newspapers and on social media networks results in more contributions. All SMS are provided with metadata information. Looking at the composition of the corpus, it becomes visible that a small number of people have contributed a large amount of data, in total 272 people have contributed to the corpus during three months. The number of women contributing to the corpus is larger than the number of men, but male contributors submitted larger amounts of data. This corpus will be of paramount importance for sociolinguistic research and normalisation studies.
In this paper we present the first corpus where one million Dutch words from a variety of text genres have been annotated with semantic roles. 500K have been completely manually verified and used as training material to automatically label another 500K. All data has been annotated following an adapted version of the PropBank guidelines. The corpus's rich text type diversity and the availability of manually verified syntactic dependency structures allowed us to experiment with an existing semantic role labeler for Dutch. In order to test the system's portability across various domains, we experimented with training on individual domains and compared this with training on multiple domains by adding more data. Our results show that training on large data sets is necessary but that including genre-specific training material is also crucial to optimize classification. We observed that a small amount of in-domain training data is already sufficient to improve our semantic role labeler.
After three years of work the Dutch Parallel Corpus (DPC) project has reached an end. The finalized corpus is a ten-million-word high-quality sentence-aligned bidirectional parallel corpus of Dutch, English and French, with Dutch as central language. In this paper we present the corpus and try to formulate some basic data collection principles, based on the work that was carried out for the project. Building a corpus is a difficult and time-consuming task, especially when every text sample included has to be cleared from copyrights. The DPC is balanced according to five text types (literature, journalistic texts, instructive texts, administrative texts and texts treating external communication) and four translation directions (Dutch-English, English-Dutch, Dutch-French and French-Dutch). All the text material was cleared from copyrights. The data collection process necessitated the involvement of different text providers, which resulted in drawing up four different licence agreements. Problems such as an unknown source language, copyright issues and changes to the corpus design are discussed in close detail and illustrated with examples so as to be of help to future corpus compilers.
In The Low Countries, a major reference corpus for written Dutch is being built. We discuss the interplay between data acquisition and data processing during the creation of the SoNaR Corpus. Based on developments in traditional corpus compiling and new web harvesting approaches, SoNaR is designed to contain 500 million words, balanced over 36 text types including both traditional and new media texts. Beside its balanced design, every text sample included in SoNaR will have its IPR issues settled to the largest extent possible. This data collection task presents many challenges because every decision taken on the level of text acquisition has ramifications for the level of processing and the general usability of the corpus. As far as the traditional text types are concerned, each text brings its own processing requirements and issues. For new media texts - SMS, chat - the problem is even more complex, issues such as anonimity, recognizability and citation right, all present problems that have to be tackled. The solutions actually lead to the creation of two corpora: a gigaword SoNaR, IPR-cleared for research purposes, and the smaller - of commissioned size - more privacy compliant SoNaR, IPR-cleared for commercial purposes as well.