Parag Singla


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Image Manipulation via Multi-Hop Instructions - A New Dataset and Weakly-Supervised Neuro-Symbolic Approach
Harman Singh | Poorva Garg | Mohit Gupta | Kevin Shah | Ashish Goswami | Satyam Modi | Arnab Mondal | Dinesh Khandelwal | Dinesh Garg | Parag Singla
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

We are interested in image manipulation via natural language text – a task that is useful for multiple AI applications but requires complex reasoning over multi-modal spaces. We extend recently proposed Neuro Symbolic Concept Learning (NSCL), which has been quite effective for the task of Visual Question Answering (VQA), for the task of image manipulation. Our system referred to as NeuroSIM can perform complex multi-hop reasoning over multi-object scenes and only requires weak supervision in the form of annotated data for VQA. NeuroSIM parses an instruction into a symbolic program, based on a Domain Specific Language (DSL) comprising of object attributes and manipulation operations, that guides its execution. We create a new dataset for the task, and extensive experiments demonstrate that NeuroSIM is highly competitive with or beats SOTA baselines that make use of supervised data for manipulation.

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ZGUL: Zero-shot Generalization to Unseen Languages using Multi-source Ensembling of Language Adapters
Vipul Rathore | Rajdeep Dhingra | Parag Singla | Mausam
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

We tackle the problem of zero-shot cross-lingual transfer in NLP tasks via the use of language adapters (LAs). Most of the earlier works have explored training with adapter of a single source (often English), and testing either using the target LA or LA of another related language. Training target LA requires unlabeled data, which may not be readily available for low resource *unseen* languages: those that are neither seen by the underlying multilingual language model (e.g., mBERT), nor do we have any (labeled or unlabeled) data for them. We posit that for more effective cross-lingual transfer, instead of just one source LA, we need to leverage LAs of multiple (linguistically or geographically related) source languages, both at train and test-time - which we investigate via our novel neural architecture, ZGUL. Extensive experimentation across four language groups, covering 15 unseen target languages, demonstrates improvements of up to 3.2 average F1 points over standard fine-tuning and other strong baselines on POS tagging and NER tasks. We also extend ZGUL to settings where either (1) some unlabeled data or (2) few-shot training examples are available for the target language. We find that ZGUL continues to outperform baselines in these settings too.

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Simple Augmentations of Logical Rules for Neuro-Symbolic Knowledge Graph Completion
Ananjan Nandi | Navdeep Kaur | Parag Singla | Mausam
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)

High-quality and high-coverage rule sets are imperative to the success of Neuro-Symbolic Knowledge Graph Completion (NS-KGC) models, because they form the basis of all symbolic inferences. Recent literature builds neural models for generating rule sets, however, preliminary experiments show that they struggle with maintaining high coverage. In this work, we suggest three simple augmentations to existing rule sets: (1) transforming rules to their abductive forms, (2) generating equivalent rules that use inverse forms of constituent relations and (3) random walks that propose new rules. Finally, we prune potentially low quality rules. Experiments over four datasets and five ruleset-baseline settings suggest that these simple augmentations consistently improve results, and obtain up to 7.1 pt MRR and 8.5 pt Hits@1 gains over using rules without augmentations.


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PARE: A Simple and Strong Baseline for Monolingual and Multilingual Distantly Supervised Relation Extraction
Vipul Rathore | Kartikeya Badola | Parag Singla | Mausam
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)

Neural models for distantly supervised relation extraction (DS-RE) encode each sentence in an entity-pair bag separately. These are then aggregated for bag-level relation prediction. Since, at encoding time, these approaches do not allow information to flow from other sentences in the bag, we believe that they do not utilize the available bag data to the fullest. In response, we explore a simple baseline approach (PARE) in which all sentences of a bag are concatenated into a passage of sentences, and encoded jointly using BERT. The contextual embeddings of tokens are aggregated using attention with the candidate relation as query – this summary of whole passage predicts the candidate relation. We find that our simple baseline solution outperforms existing state-of-the-art DS-RE models in both monolingual and multilingual DS-RE datasets.


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Explanations for CommonsenseQA: New Dataset and Models
Shourya Aggarwal | Divyanshu Mandowara | Vishwajeet Agrawal | Dinesh Khandelwal | Parag Singla | Dinesh Garg
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

CommonsenseQA (CQA) (Talmor et al., 2019) dataset was recently released to advance the research on common-sense question answering (QA) task. Whereas the prior work has mostly focused on proposing QA models for this dataset, our aim is to retrieve as well as generate explanation for a given (question, correct answer choice, incorrect answer choices) tuple from this dataset. Our explanation definition is based on certain desiderata, and translates an explanation into a set of positive and negative common-sense properties (aka facts) which not only explain the correct answer choice but also refute the incorrect ones. We human-annotate a first-of-its-kind dataset (called ECQA) of positive and negative properties, as well as free-flow explanations, for 11K QA pairs taken from the CQA dataset. We propose a latent representation based property retrieval model as well as a GPT-2 based property generation model with a novel two step fine-tuning procedure. We also propose a free-flow explanation generation model. Extensive experiments show that our retrieval model beats BM25 baseline by a relative gain of 100% in F1 score, property generation model achieves a respectable F1 score of 36.4, and free-flow generation model achieves a similarity score of 61.9, where last two scores are based on a human correlated semantic similarity metric.


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Transfer Learning for Related Languages: Submissions to the WMT20 Similar Language Translation Task
Lovish Madaan | Soumya Sharma | Parag Singla
Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Machine Translation

In this paper, we describe IIT Delhi’s submissions to the WMT 2020 task on Similar Language Translation for four language directions: Hindi <-> Marathi and Spanish <-> Portuguese. We try out three different model settings for the translation task and select our primary and contrastive submissions on the basis of performance of these three models. For our best submissions, we fine-tune the mBART model on the parallel data provided for the task. The pre-training is done using self-supervised objectives on a large amount of monolingual data for many languages. Overall, our models are ranked in the top four of all systems for the submitted language pairs, with first rank in Spanish -> Portuguese.


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Entity-balanced Gaussian pLSA for Automated Comparison
Danish Contractor | Parag Singla | Mausam
Proceedings of the 2016 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies