Parul Chopra


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Switch Point biased Self-Training: Re-purposing Pretrained Models for Code-Switching
Parul Chopra | Sai Krishna Rallabandi | Alan W Black | Khyathi Raghavi Chandu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2021

Code-switching (CS), a ubiquitous phenomenon due to the ease of communication it offers in multilingual communities still remains an understudied problem in language processing. The primary reasons behind this are: (1) minimal efforts in leveraging large pretrained multilingual models, and (2) the lack of annotated data. The distinguishing case of low performance of multilingual models in CS is the intra-sentence mixing of languages leading to switch points. We first benchmark two sequence labeling tasks – POS and NER on 4 different language pairs with a suite of pretrained models to identify the problems and select the best performing char-BERT model among them (addressing (1)). We then propose a self training method to repurpose the existing pretrained models using a switch-point bias by leveraging unannotated data (addressing (2)). We finally demonstrate that our approach performs well on both tasks by reducing the gap between the switch point performance while retaining the overall performance on two distinct language pairs in both the tasks. We plan to release our models and the code for all our experiments.


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Minority Positive Sampling for Switching Points - an Anecdote for the Code-Mixing Language Modeling
Arindam Chatterjere | Vineeth Guptha | Parul Chopra | Amitava Das
Proceedings of the 12th Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

Code-Mixing (CM) or language mixing is a social norm in multilingual societies. CM is quite prevalent in social media conversations in multilingual regions like - India, Europe, Canada and Mexico. In this paper, we explore the problem of Language Modeling (LM) for code-mixed Hinglish text. In recent times, there have been several success stories with neural language modeling like Generative Pre-trained Transformer (GPT) (Radford et al., 2019), Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers (BERT) (Devlin et al., 2018) etc.. Hence, neural language models have become the new holy grail of modern NLP, although LM for CM is an unexplored area altogether. To better understand the problem of LM for CM, we initially experimented with several statistical language modeling techniques and consequently experimented with contemporary neural language models. Analysis shows switching-points are the main challenge for the LMCM performance drop, therefore in this paper we introduce the idea of minority positive sampling to selectively induce more sample to achieve better performance. On the contrary, all neural language models demand a huge corpus to train on for better performance. Finally, we are reporting a perplexity of 139 for Hinglish (Hindi-English language pair) LMCM using statistical bi-directional techniques.