Patrick Huber


2023

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Discourse Structure Extraction from Pre-Trained and Fine-Tuned Language Models in Dialogues
Chuyuan Li | Patrick Huber | Wen Xiao | Maxime Amblard | Chloe Braud | Giuseppe Carenini
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EACL 2023

Discourse processing suffers from data sparsity, especially for dialogues. As a result, we explore approaches to infer latent discourse structures for dialogues, based on attention matrices from Pre-trained Language Models (PLMs). We investigate multiple auxiliary tasks for fine-tuning and show that the dialogue-tailored Sentence Ordering task performs best. To locate and exploit discourse information in PLMs, we propose an unsupervised and a semi-supervised method. Our proposals thereby achieve encouraging results on the STAC corpus, with F1 scores of 57.2 and 59.3 for the unsupervised and semi-supervised methods, respectively. When restricted to projective trees, our scores improved to 63.3 and 68.1.

2022

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Improving Topic Segmentation by Injecting Discourse Dependencies
Linzi Xing | Patrick Huber | Giuseppe Carenini
Proceedings of the 3rd Workshop on Computational Approaches to Discourse

Recent neural supervised topic segmentation models achieve distinguished superior effectiveness over unsupervised methods, with the availability of large-scale training corpora sampled from Wikipedia. These models may, however, suffer from limited robustness and transferability caused by exploiting simple linguistic cues for prediction, but overlooking more important inter-sentential topical consistency. To address this issue, we present a discourse-aware neural topic segmentation model with the injection of above-sentence discourse dependency structures to encourage the model make topic boundary prediction based more on the topical consistency between sentences. Our empirical study on English evaluation datasets shows that injecting above-sentence discourse structures to a neural topic segmenter with our proposed strategy can substantially improve its performances on intra-domain and out-of-domain data, with little increase of model’s complexity.

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CCQA: A New Web-Scale Question Answering Dataset for Model Pre-Training
Patrick Huber | Armen Aghajanyan | Barlas Oguz | Dmytro Okhonko | Scott Yih | Sonal Gupta | Xilun Chen
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: NAACL 2022

We propose a novel open-domain question-answering dataset based on the Common Crawl project. With a previously unseen number of around 130 million multilingual question-answer pairs (including about 60 million English data-points), we use our large-scale, natural, diverse and high-quality corpus to in-domain pre-train popular language models for the task of question-answering. In our experiments, we find that our Common Crawl Question Answering dataset (CCQA) achieves promising results in zero-shot, low resource and fine-tuned settings across multiple tasks, models and benchmarks.

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Towards Understanding Large-Scale Discourse Structures in Pre-Trained and Fine-Tuned Language Models
Patrick Huber | Giuseppe Carenini
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

In this paper, we extend the line of BERTology work by focusing on the important, yet less explored, alignment of pre-trained and fine-tuned PLMs with large-scale discourse structures. We propose a novel approach to infer discourse information for arbitrarily long documents. In our experiments, we find that the captured discourse information is local and general, even across a collection of fine-tuning tasks. We compare the inferred discourse trees with supervised, distantly supervised and simple baselines to explore the structural overlap, finding that constituency discourse trees align well with supervised models, however, contain complementary discourse information. Lastly, we individually explore self-attention matrices to analyze the information redundancy. We find that similar discourse information is consistently captured in the same heads.

2021

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W-RST: Towards a Weighted RST-style Discourse Framework
Patrick Huber | Wen Xiao | Giuseppe Carenini
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Aiming for a better integration of data-driven and linguistically-inspired approaches, we explore whether RST Nuclearity, assigning a binary assessment of importance between text segments, can be replaced by automatically generated, real-valued scores, in what we call a Weighted-RST framework. In particular, we find that weighted discourse trees from auxiliary tasks can benefit key NLP downstream applications, compared to nuclearity-centered approaches. We further show that real-valued importance distributions partially and interestingly align with the assessment and uncertainty of human annotators.

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Predicting Discourse Trees from Transformer-based Neural Summarizers
Wen Xiao | Patrick Huber | Giuseppe Carenini
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Previous work indicates that discourse information benefits summarization. In this paper, we explore whether this synergy between discourse and summarization is bidirectional, by inferring document-level discourse trees from pre-trained neural summarizers. In particular, we generate unlabeled RST-style discourse trees from the self-attention matrices of the transformer model. Experiments across models and datasets reveal that the summarizer learns both, dependency- and constituency-style discourse information, which is typically encoded in a single head, covering long- and short-distance discourse dependencies. Overall, the experimental results suggest that the learned discourse information is general and transferable inter-domain.

2020

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Do We Really Need That Many Parameters In Transformer For Extractive Summarization? Discourse Can Help !
Wen Xiao | Patrick Huber | Giuseppe Carenini
Proceedings of the First Workshop on Computational Approaches to Discourse

The multi-head self-attention of popular transformer models is widely used within Natural Language Processing (NLP), including for the task of extractive summarization. With the goal of analyzing and pruning the parameter-heavy self-attention mechanism, there are multiple approaches proposing more parameter-light self-attention alternatives. In this paper, we present a novel parameter-lean self-attention mechanism using discourse priors. Our new tree self-attention is based on document-level discourse information, extending the recently proposed “Synthesizer” framework with another lightweight alternative. We show empirical results that our tree self-attention approach achieves competitive ROUGE-scores on the task of extractive summarization. When compared to the original single-head transformer model, the tree attention approach reaches similar performance on both, EDU and sentence level, despite the significant reduction of parameters in the attention component. We further significantly outperform the 8-head transformer model on sentence level when applying a more balanced hyper-parameter setting, requiring an order of magnitude less parameters.

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MEGA RST Discourse Treebanks with Structure and Nuclearity from Scalable Distant Sentiment Supervision
Patrick Huber | Giuseppe Carenini
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

The lack of large and diverse discourse treebanks hinders the application of data-driven approaches, such as deep-learning, to RST-style discourse parsing. In this work, we present a novel scalable methodology to automatically generate discourse treebanks using distant supervision from sentiment annotated datasets, creating and publishing MEGA-DT, a new large-scale discourse-annotated corpus. Our approach generates discourse trees incorporating structure and nuclearity for documents of arbitrary length by relying on an efficient heuristic beam-search strategy, extended with a stochastic component. Experiments on multiple datasets indicate that a discourse parser trained on our MEGA-DT treebank delivers promising inter-domain performance gains when compared to parsers trained on human-annotated discourse corpora.

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From Sentiment Annotations to Sentiment Prediction through Discourse Augmentation
Patrick Huber | Giuseppe Carenini
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Sentiment analysis, especially for long documents, plausibly requires methods capturing complex linguistics structures. To accommodate this, we propose a novel framework to exploit task-related discourse for the task of sentiment analysis. More specifically, we are combining the large-scale, sentiment-dependent MEGA-DT treebank with a novel neural architecture for sentiment prediction, based on a hybrid TreeLSTM hierarchical attention model. Experiments show that our framework using sentiment-related discourse augmentations for sentiment prediction enhances the overall performance for long documents, even beyond previous approaches using well-established discourse parsers trained on human annotated data. We show that a simple ensemble approach can further enhance performance by selectively using discourse, depending on the document length.

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Unleashing the Power of Neural Discourse Parsers - A Context and Structure Aware Approach Using Large Scale Pretraining
Grigorii Guz | Patrick Huber | Giuseppe Carenini
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

RST-based discourse parsing is an important NLP task with numerous downstream applications, such as summarization, machine translation and opinion mining. In this paper, we demonstrate a simple, yet highly accurate discourse parser, incorporating recent contextual language models. Our parser establishes the new state-of-the-art (SOTA) performance for predicting structure and nuclearity on two key RST datasets, RST-DT and Instr-DT. We further demonstrate that pretraining our parser on the recently available large-scale “silver-standard” discourse treebank MEGA-DT provides even larger performance benefits, suggesting a novel and promising research direction in the field of discourse analysis.

2019

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Predicting Discourse Structure using Distant Supervision from Sentiment
Patrick Huber | Giuseppe Carenini
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Discourse parsing could not yet take full advantage of the neural NLP revolution, mostly due to the lack of annotated datasets. We propose a novel approach that uses distant supervision on an auxiliary task (sentiment classification), to generate abundant data for RST-style discourse structure prediction. Our approach combines a neural variant of multiple-instance learning, using document-level supervision, with an optimal CKY-style tree generation algorithm. In a series of experiments, we train a discourse parser (for only structure prediction) on our automatically generated dataset and compare it with parsers trained on human-annotated corpora (news domain RST-DT and Instructional domain). Results indicate that while our parser does not yet match the performance of a parser trained and tested on the same dataset (intra-domain), it does perform remarkably well on the much more difficult and arguably more useful task of inter-domain discourse structure prediction, where the parser is trained on one domain and tested/applied on another one.

2018

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Automated Evaluation of Out-of-Context Errors
Patrick Huber | Jan Niehues | Alex Waibel
Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2018)