Patrick Liu


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Enhancing Self-Consistency and Performance of Pre-Trained Language Models through Natural Language Inference
Eric Mitchell | Joseph Noh | Siyan Li | Will Armstrong | Ananth Agarwal | Patrick Liu | Chelsea Finn | Christopher Manning
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

While large pre-trained language models are powerful, their predictions often lack logical consistency across test inputs. For example, a state-of-the-art Macaw question-answering (QA) model answers Yes to Is a sparrow a bird? and Does a bird have feet? but answers No to Does a sparrow have feet?. To address this failure mode, we propose a framework, Consistency Correction through Relation Detection, or ConCoRD, for boosting the consistency and accuracy of pre-trained NLP models using pre-trained natural language inference (NLI) models without fine-tuning or re-training. Given a batch of test inputs, ConCoRD samples several candidate outputs for each input and instantiates a factor graph that accounts for both the model’s belief about the likelihood of each answer choice in isolation and the NLI model’s beliefs about pair-wise answer choice compatibility. We show that a weighted MaxSAT solver can efficiently compute high-quality answer choices under this factor graph, improving over the raw model’s predictions. Our experiments demonstrate that ConCoRD consistently boosts accuracy and consistency of off-the-shelf closed-book QA and VQA models using off-the-shelf NLI models, notably increasing accuracy of LXMERT on ConVQA by 5% absolute. See the project website ( for code and data.

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GLARE: Generative Left-to-right AdversaRial Examples
Ryan Andrew Chi | Nathan Kim | Patrick Liu | Zander Lack | Ethan A Chi
Proceedings of the 3rd Workshop on Evaluation and Comparison of NLP Systems

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Stanford MLab at SemEval 2022 Task 7: Tree- and Transformer-Based Methods for Clarification Plausibility
Thomas Yim | Junha Lee | Rishi Verma | Scott Hickmann | Annie Zhu | Camron Sallade | Ian Ng | Ryan Chi | Patrick Liu
Proceedings of the 16th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation (SemEval-2022)

In this paper, we detail the methods we used to determine the idiomaticity and plausibility of candidate words or phrases into an instructional text as part of the SemEval Task 7: Identifying Plausible Clarifications of Implicit and Underspecified Phrases in Instructional Texts. Given a set of steps in an instructional text, there are certain phrases that most plausibly fill that spot. We explored various possible architectures, including tree-based methods over GloVe embeddings, ensembled BERT and ELECTRA models, and GPT 2-based infilling methods.


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Stanford MLab at SemEval-2021 Task 1: Tree-Based Modelling of Lexical Complexity using Word Embeddings
Erik Rozi | Niveditha Iyer | Gordon Chi | Enok Choe | Kathy J. Lee | Kevin Liu | Patrick Liu | Zander Lack | Jillian Tang | Ethan A. Chi
Proceedings of the 15th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation (SemEval-2021)

This paper presents our system for the single- and multi-word lexical complexity prediction tasks of SemEval Task 1: Lexical Complexity Prediction. Text comprehension depends on the reader’s ability to understand the words present in it; evaluating the lexical complexity of such texts can enable readers to find an appropriate text and systems to tailor a text to an audience’s needs. We present our model pipeline, which applies a combination of embedding-based and manual features to predict lexical complexity on the CompLex English dataset using various tree-based and linear models. Our method is ranked 27 / 54 on single-word prediction and 14 / 37 on multi-word prediction.

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Stanford MLab at SemEval-2021 Task 8: 48 Hours Is All You Need
Patrick Liu | Niveditha Iyer | Erik Rozi | Ethan A. Chi
Proceedings of the 15th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation (SemEval-2021)

This paper presents our system for the Quantity span identification, Unit of measurement identification and Value modifier classification subtasks of the MeasEval 2021 task. The purpose of the Quantity span identification task was to locate spans of text that contain a count or measurement, consisting of a value, usually followed by a unit and occasionally additional modifiers. The goal of the modifier classification task was to determine whether an associated text fragment served to indicate range, tolerance, mean value, etc. of a quantity. The developed systems used pre-trained BERT models which were fine-tuned for the task at hand. We present our system, investigate how architectural decisions affected model predictions, and conduct an error analysis. Overall, our system placed 12 / 19 in the shared task and in the 2nd place for the Unit subcategory.