Patrick Saint-Dizier

Also published as: Patrick Saint Dizier


2017

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Using Question-Answering Techniques to Implement a Knowledge-Driven Argument Mining Approach
Patrick Saint-Dizier
Proceedings of the 4th Workshop on Argument Mining

This short paper presents a first implementation of a knowledge-driven argument mining approach. The major processing steps and language resources of the system are surveyed. An indicative evaluation outlines challenges and improvement directions.

2016

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Error Typology and Remediation Strategies for Requirements Written in English by Non-Native Speakers
Marie Garnier | Patrick Saint-Dizier
Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'16)

In most international industries, English is the main language of communication for technical documents. These documents are designed to be as unambiguous as possible for their users. For international industries based in non-English speaking countries, the professionals in charge of writing requirements are often non-native speakers of English, who rarely receive adequate training in the use of English for this task. As a result, requirements can contain a relatively large diversity of lexical and grammatical errors, which are not eliminated by the use of guidelines from controlled languages. This article investigates the distribution of errors in a corpus of requirements written in English by native speakers of French. Errors are defined on the basis of grammaticality and acceptability principles, and classified using comparable categories. Results show a high proportion of errors in the Noun Phrase, notably through modifier stacking, and errors consistent with simplification strategies. Comparisons with similar corpora in other genres reveal the specificity of the distribution of errors in requirements. This research also introduces possible applied uses, in the form of strategies for the automatic detection of errors, and in-person training provided by certification boards in requirements authoring.

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Argument Mining: the Bottleneck of Knowledge and Language Resources
Patrick Saint-Dizier
Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'16)

Given a controversial issue, argument mining from natural language texts (news papers, and any form of text on the Internet) is extremely challenging: domain knowledge is often required together with appropriate forms of inferences to identify arguments. This contribution explores the types of knowledge that are required and how they can be paired with reasoning schemes, language processing and language resources to accurately mine arguments. We show via corpus analysis that the Generative Lexicon, enhanced in different manners and viewed as both a lexicon and a domain knowledge representation, is a relevant approach. In this paper, corpus annotation for argument mining is first developed, then we show how the generative lexicon approach must be adapted and how it can be paired with language processing patterns to extract and specify the nature of arguments. Our approach to argument mining is thus knowledge driven.

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LELIO: An Auto-Adaptative System to Acquire Domain Lexical Knowledge in Technical Texts
Patrick Saint-Dizier
Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'16)

In this paper, we investigate some language acquisition facets of an auto-adaptative system that can automatically acquire most of the relevant lexical knowledge and authoring practices for an application in a given domain. This is the LELIO project: producing customized LELIE solutions. Our goal, within the framework of LELIE (a system that tags language uses that do not follow the Constrained Natural Language principles), is to automate the long, costly and error prone lexical customization of LELIE to a given application domain. Technical texts being relatively restricted in terms of syntax and lexicon, results obtained show that this approach is feasible and relatively reliable. By auto-adaptative, we mean that the system learns from a sample of the application corpus the various lexical terms and uses crucial for LELIE to work properly (e.g. verb uses, fuzzy terms, business terms, stylistic patterns). A technical writer validation method is developed at each step of the acquisition.

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Challenges of Argument Mining: Generating an Argument Synthesis based on the Qualia Structure
Patrick Saint-Dizier
Proceedings of the 9th International Natural Language Generation conference

2014

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Requirement Mining in Technical Documents
Juyeon Kang | Patrick Saint-Dizier
Proceedings of the First Workshop on Argumentation Mining

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Processing Discourse in Dislog on the TextCoop Platform
Patrick Saint-Dizier
Proceedings of COLING 2014, the 25th International Conference on Computational Linguistics: System Demonstrations

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A Model for Processing Illocutionary Structures and Argumentation in Debates
Kasia Budzynska | Mathilde Janier | Chris Reed | Patrick Saint-Dizier | Manfred Stede | Olena Yakorska
Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'14)

In this paper, we briefly present the objectives of Inference Anchoring Theory (IAT) and the formal structure which is proposed for dialogues. Then, we introduce our development corpus, and a computational model designed for the identification of discourse minimal units in the context of argumentation and the illocutionary force associated with each unit. We show the categories of resources which are needed and how they can be reused in different contexts.

2012

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LELIE: A Tool Dedicated to Procedure and Requirement Authoring
Camille Albert | Flore Barcellini | Corinne Grosse | Patrick Saint-Dizier
Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Computational Linguistics and Writing (CL&W 2012): Linguistic and Cognitive Aspects of Document Creation and Document Engineering

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DISLOG: A logic-based language for processing discourse structures
Patrick Saint-Dizier
Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'12)

In this paper, we present the foundations and the properties of the DISLOG language, a logic-based language designed to describe and implement discourse structure analysis. Dislog has the flexibility and the expressiveness of a rule-based system, it offers the possibility to include knowledge and reasoning capabilities and the expression a variety of well-formedness constraints proper to discourse. Dislog is embedded into the platform that offers an engine with various processing capabilities and a programming environment.

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A Repository of Rules and Lexical Resources for Discourse Structure Analysis: the Case of Explanation Structures
Sarah Bourse | Patrick Saint-Dizier
Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'12)

In this paper, we present an analysis method, a set of rules, lexical resources dedicated to discourse relation identification, in particular for explanation analysis. The following relations are described with prototypical rules: instructions, advice, warnings, illustration, restatement, purpose, condition, circumstance, concession, contrast and some forms of causes. Rules are developed for French and English. The approach used to describe the analysis of such relations is basically generative and also provides a conceptual view of explanation. The implementation is realized in Dislog, using the logic-based platform, and the Dislog language, that also allows for the integration of knowledge and reasoning into rules describing the structure of explanation.

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Risk Analysis and Prevention: LELIE, a Tool dedicated to Procedure and Requirement Authoring
Flore Barcellini | Camille Albert | Corinne Grosse | Patrick Saint-Dizier
Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'12)

In this paper, we present the first phase of the LELIE project. A tool that detects business errors in technical documents such as procedures or requirements is introduced. The objective is to improve readability and to check for some elements of contents so that risks that could be entailed by misunderstandings or typos can be prevented. Based on a cognitive ergonomics analysis, we survey a number of frequently encountered types of errors and show how they can be detected using the discourse analysis platform. We show how errors can be annotated, give figures on error frequencies and analyze how technical writers perceive our system.

2011

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Proceedings of the KRAQ11 workshop
Patrick Saint-Dizier
Proceedings of the KRAQ11 workshop

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The KOMODO System: getting Recommendations on how to realize an action via Question-Answering
Marc Canitrot | Pierre-Yves Roger | Thomas de Filippo | Patrick Saint-Dizier
Proceedings of the KRAQ11 workshop

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Introducing Argumention in Opinion Analysis: Language and Reasoning Challenges
Leila Amgoud | Florence Bannay | Charlotte Costedoat | Patrick Saint-Dizier | Camille Albert
Proceedings of the Workshop on Sentiment Analysis where AI meets Psychology (SAAIP 2011)

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<TextCoop>: un analyseur de discours basé sur les grammaires logiques (<TextCoop>: a discourse analyzer based on logical grammars)
Patrick Saint-Dizier
Actes de la 18e conférence sur le Traitement Automatique des Langues Naturelles. Articles longs

Dans ce document, nous présentons les principales caractéristiques de <TextCoop>, un environnement basé sur les grammaires logiques dédié à l’analyse de structures discursives. Nous étudions en particulier le langage DisLog qui fixe la structure des règles et des spécifications qui les accompagnent. Nous présentons la structure du moteur de <TextCoop> en indiquant au fur et à mesure du texte l’état du travail, les performances et les orientations en particulier en matière d’environnement, d’aide à l’écriture de règles et de développement applicatif.

2010

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Towards Building Annotated Resources for Analyzing Opinions and Argumentation in News Editorials
Bal Krishna Bal | Patrick Saint Dizier
Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'10)

This paper describes an annotation scheme for argumentation in opinionated texts such as newspaper editorials, developed from a corpus of approximately 500 English texts from Nepali and international newspaper sources. We present the results of analysis and evaluation of the corpus annotation ― currently, the inter-annotator agreement kappa value being 0.80 which indicates substantial agreement between the annotators. We also discuss some of linguistic resources (key factors for distinguishing facts from opinions, opinion lexicon, intensifier lexicon, pre-modifier lexicon, modal verb lexicon, reporting verb lexicon, general opinion patterns from the corpus etc.) developed as a result of our corpus analysis, which can be used to identify an opinion or a controversial issue, arguments supporting an opinion, orientation of the supporting arguments and their strength (intrinsic, relative and in terms of persuasion). These resources form the backbone of our work especially for performing the opinion analysis in the lower levels, i.e., in the lexical and sentence levels. Finally, we shed light on the perspectives of the given work clearly outlining the challenges.

2009

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Correcting Errors Using the Framework of Argumentation: Towards Generating Argumentative Correction Propositions from Error Annotation Schemas
Marie Garnier | Arnaud Rykner | Patrick Saint-Dizier
Proceedings of the 23rd Pacific Asia Conference on Language, Information and Computation, Volume 1

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Proceedings of the 2009 Workshop on Knowledge and Reasoning for Answering Questions (KRAQ 2009)
Patrick Saint-Dizier | Marie-Francine Moens
Proceedings of the 2009 Workshop on Knowledge and Reasoning for Answering Questions (KRAQ 2009)

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Some Challenges in the Design of Comparative and Evaluative Question Answering Systems
Nathalie Lim | Patrick Saint-Dizier | Rachel Roxas
Proceedings of the 2009 Workshop on Knowledge and Reasoning for Answering Questions (KRAQ 2009)

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Addressing How-to Questions using a Spoken Dialogue System: a Viable Approach?
Silvia Quarteroni | Patrick Saint-Dizier
Proceedings of the 2009 Workshop on Knowledge and Reasoning for Answering Questions (KRAQ 2009)

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Annotating language errors in texts: investigating argumentation and decision schemas
Camille Albert | Laurie Buscail | Marie Garnier | Arnaud Rykner | Patrick Saint-Dizier
Proceedings of the Third Linguistic Annotation Workshop (LAW III)

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An Analysis of the Calque Phenomena Based on Comparable Corpora
Marie Garnier | Patrick Saint-Dizier
Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Building and Using Comparable Corpora: from Parallel to Non-parallel Corpora (BUCC)

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A Formal Model for Procedural Texts and its Use in Textual Integration
Isabelle Dautriche | Patrick Saint-Dizier
Proceedings of the Eight International Conference on Computational Semantics

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An Application of Lexical Semantics Annotation to Question-Answering in e-Farming
Mukda Suktarachan | Patrick Saint-Dizier
Proceedings of the Eight International Conference on Computational Semantics

2008

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Coling 2008: Proceedings of the workshop on Knowledge and Reasoning for Answering Questions
Marie-Francine Moens | Patrick Saint-Dizier
Coling 2008: Proceedings of the workshop on Knowledge and Reasoning for Answering Questions

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Creating and Querying a Domain dependent Know-How Knowledge Base of Advices and Warnings
Lionel Fontan | Patrick Saint-Dizier
Coling 2008: Proceedings of the workshop on Knowledge and Reasoning for Answering Questions

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Analyzing the Explanation Structure of Procedural Texts: Dealing with Advice and Warnings
Lionel Fontan | Patrick Saint-Dizier
Semantics in Text Processing. STEP 2008 Conference Proceedings

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Syntactic and Semantic Frames in PrepNet
Patrick Saint-Dizier
Proceedings of the Third International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing: Volume-II

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Investigating the Structure of Procedural Texts for Answering How-to Questions
Estelle Delpech | Patrick Saint-Dizier
Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'08)

This paper presents ongoing work dedicated to parsing the textual structure of procedural texts. We propose here a model for the intructional structure and criteria to identify its main components: titles, instructions, warnings and prerequisites. The main aim of this project, besides a contribution to text processing, is to be able to answer procedural questions (How-to? questions), where the answer is a well-formed portion of a text, not a small set of words as for factoid questions.

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Some Challenges of Advanced Question-Answering: an Experiment with How-to Questions
Patrick Saint-Dizier
Proceedings of the 22nd Pacific Asia Conference on Language, Information and Computation

2006

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A Conceptual Analysis of the Notion of Instrumentality via a Multilingual Analysis
Asanee Kawtrakul | Mukda Suktarachan | Bali Ranaivo-Malancon | Pek Kuan | Achla Raina | Sudeshna Sarkar | Alda Mari | Sina Zarriess | Elixabete Murguia | Patrick Saint-Dizier
Proceedings of the Third ACL-SIGSEM Workshop on Prepositions

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PrepNet: a Multilingual Lexical Description of Prepositions
Patrick Saint-Dizier
Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC’06)

In this paper, we present the results of a preliminary investigation that aims at constructing a repository of preposition syntactic and semantic behaviors. A preliminary frame-based format for representing their prototypical behavior is then proposed together with related inferential patterns that describe functional or paradigmatic relations between preposition senses.

2005

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Towards Generating Procedural Texts: An Exploration of their Rhetorical and Argumentative Structure
Farida Aouladomar | Patrick Saint-Dizier
Proceedings of the Tenth European Workshop on Natural Language Generation (ENLG-05)

2004

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COOPML: Towards Annotating Cooperative Discourse
Farah Benamara | Veronique Moriceau | Patrick Saint-Dizier
Proceedings of the Workshop on Discourse Annotation

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Lexicalisation strategies in cooperative question-answering systems
Farah Benamara | Patrick Saint-Dizier
COLING 2004: Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

2003

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Dynamic Generation of Cooperative Natural Language Responses in WEBCOOP
Farah Benamara | Patrick Saint Dizier
Proceedings of the 9th European Workshop on Natural Language Generation (ENLG-2003) at EACL 2003

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WEBCOOP: A Cooperative Question Answering System on the Web
Farah Benamara | Patrick Saint Dizier
10th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics

2002

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Defining and Representing Preposition Senses: a preliminary analysis
Emmanuelle Cannesson | Patrick Saint-Dizier
Proceedings of the ACL-02 Workshop on Word Sense Disambiguation: Recent Successes and Future Directions

1998

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A Generative Lexicon Perspective for Adjectival Modification
Patrick Saint-Dizier
COLING 1998 Volume 2: The 17th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

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A Generative Lexicon Perspective for Adjectival Modification
Patrick Saint-Dizier
36th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and 17th International Conference on Computational Linguistics, Volume 2

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Sense Variation and Lexical Semantics Generative Operations
Patrick Saint-Dizier
New Methods in Language Processing and Computational Natural Language Learning

1996

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Constructing Verb Semantic Classes for French: Methods and Evaluation
Patrick Saint-Dizier
COLING 1996 Volume 2: The 16th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

1994

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Knowledge Extraction from Texts: a method for extracting predicate-argument structures from texts
Florence Pugeault | Patrick Saint-Dizier | Marie-Gaelle Monteil
COLING 1994 Volume 2: The 15th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

1993

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Book Reviews: Functional Grammar in Prolog: An Integrated Implementation for English, French, and Dutch
Patrick Saint-Dizier
Computational Linguistics, Volume 19, Number 4, December 1993

1991

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Processing Language with Logical Types and Active Constraints
Patrick Saint-Dizier
Fifth Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics

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Reversibility in a Constraint and Type based Logic Grammar: Application to Secondary Predication
Palmira Marrafa | Patrick Saint-Dizier
Reversible Grammar in Natural Language Processing

1989

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Programming in Logic with Constraints for Natural Language Processing
Patrick Saint-Dizier
Fourth Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics

1988

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Default Logic, Natural Language and Generalized Quantifiers
Patrick Saint-Dizier
Coling Budapest 1988 Volume 2: International Conference on Computational Linguistics

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Book Reviews: Prolog and Natural-Language Analysis
Patrick Saint-Dizier
Computational Linguistics, Volume 14, Number 2, June 1988