Patrick Verga


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Unsupervised Labeled Parsing with Deep Inside-Outside Recursive Autoencoders
Andrew Drozdov | Patrick Verga | Yi-Pei Chen | Mohit Iyyer | Andrew McCallum
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Understanding text often requires identifying meaningful constituent spans such as noun phrases and verb phrases. In this work, we show that we can effectively recover these types of labels using the learned phrase vectors from deep inside-outside recursive autoencoders (DIORA). Specifically, we cluster span representations to induce span labels. Additionally, we improve the model’s labeling accuracy by integrating latent code learning into the training procedure. We evaluate this approach empirically through unsupervised labeled constituency parsing. Our method outperforms ELMo and BERT on two versions of the Wall Street Journal (WSJ) dataset and is competitive to prior work that requires additional human annotations, improving over a previous state-of-the-art system that depends on ground-truth part-of-speech tags by 5 absolute F1 points (19% relative error reduction).

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Unsupervised Latent Tree Induction with Deep Inside-Outside Recursive Auto-Encoders
Andrew Drozdov | Patrick Verga | Mohit Yadav | Mohit Iyyer | Andrew McCallum
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long and Short Papers)

We introduce the deep inside-outside recursive autoencoder (DIORA), a fully-unsupervised method for discovering syntax that simultaneously learns representations for constituents within the induced tree. Our approach predicts each word in an input sentence conditioned on the rest of the sentence. During training we use dynamic programming to consider all possible binary trees over the sentence, and for inference we use the CKY algorithm to extract the highest scoring parse. DIORA outperforms previously reported results for unsupervised binary constituency parsing on the benchmark WSJ dataset.


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Marginal Likelihood Training of BiLSTM-CRF for Biomedical Named Entity Recognition from Disjoint Label Sets
Nathan Greenberg | Trapit Bansal | Patrick Verga | Andrew McCallum
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Extracting typed entity mentions from text is a fundamental component to language understanding and reasoning. While there exist substantial labeled text datasets for multiple subsets of biomedical entity types—such as genes and proteins, or chemicals and diseases—it is rare to find large labeled datasets containing labels for all desired entity types together. This paper presents a method for training a single CRF extractor from multiple datasets with disjoint or partially overlapping sets of entity types. Our approach employs marginal likelihood training to insist on labels that are present in the data, while filling in “missing labels”. This allows us to leverage all the available data within a single model. In experimental results on the Biocreative V CDR (chemicals/diseases), Biocreative VI ChemProt (chemicals/proteins) and MedMentions (19 entity types) datasets, we show that joint training on multiple datasets improves NER F1 over training in isolation, and our methods achieve state-of-the-art results.

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Linguistically-Informed Self-Attention for Semantic Role Labeling
Emma Strubell | Patrick Verga | Daniel Andor | David Weiss | Andrew McCallum
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Current state-of-the-art semantic role labeling (SRL) uses a deep neural network with no explicit linguistic features. However, prior work has shown that gold syntax trees can dramatically improve SRL decoding, suggesting the possibility of increased accuracy from explicit modeling of syntax. In this work, we present linguistically-informed self-attention (LISA): a neural network model that combines multi-head self-attention with multi-task learning across dependency parsing, part-of-speech tagging, predicate detection and SRL. Unlike previous models which require significant pre-processing to prepare linguistic features, LISA can incorporate syntax using merely raw tokens as input, encoding the sequence only once to simultaneously perform parsing, predicate detection and role labeling for all predicates. Syntax is incorporated by training one attention head to attend to syntactic parents for each token. Moreover, if a high-quality syntactic parse is already available, it can be beneficially injected at test time without re-training our SRL model. In experiments on CoNLL-2005 SRL, LISA achieves new state-of-the-art performance for a model using predicted predicates and standard word embeddings, attaining 2.5 F1 absolute higher than the previous state-of-the-art on newswire and more than 3.5 F1 on out-of-domain data, nearly 10% reduction in error. On ConLL-2012 English SRL we also show an improvement of more than 2.5 F1. LISA also out-performs the state-of-the-art with contextually-encoded (ELMo) word representations, by nearly 1.0 F1 on news and more than 2.0 F1 on out-of-domain text.

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Hierarchical Losses and New Resources for Fine-grained Entity Typing and Linking
Shikhar Murty | Patrick Verga | Luke Vilnis | Irena Radovanovic | Andrew McCallum
Proceedings of the 56th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Extraction from raw text to a knowledge base of entities and fine-grained types is often cast as prediction into a flat set of entity and type labels, neglecting the rich hierarchies over types and entities contained in curated ontologies. Previous attempts to incorporate hierarchical structure have yielded little benefit and are restricted to shallow ontologies. This paper presents new methods using real and complex bilinear mappings for integrating hierarchical information, yielding substantial improvement over flat predictions in entity linking and fine-grained entity typing, and achieving new state-of-the-art results for end-to-end models on the benchmark FIGER dataset. We also present two new human-annotated datasets containing wide and deep hierarchies which we will release to the community to encourage further research in this direction: MedMentions, a collection of PubMed abstracts in which 246k mentions have been mapped to the massive UMLS ontology; and TypeNet, which aligns Freebase types with the WordNet hierarchy to obtain nearly 2k entity types. In experiments on all three datasets we show substantial gains from hierarchy-aware training.

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Simultaneously Self-Attending to All Mentions for Full-Abstract Biological Relation Extraction
Patrick Verga | Emma Strubell | Andrew McCallum
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long Papers)

Most work in relation extraction forms a prediction by looking at a short span of text within a single sentence containing a single entity pair mention. This approach often does not consider interactions across mentions, requires redundant computation for each mention pair, and ignores relationships expressed across sentence boundaries. These problems are exacerbated by the document- (rather than sentence-) level annotation common in biological text. In response, we propose a model which simultaneously predicts relationships between all mention pairs in a document. We form pairwise predictions over entire paper abstracts using an efficient self-attention encoder. All-pairs mention scores allow us to perform multi-instance learning by aggregating over mentions to form entity pair representations. We further adapt to settings without mention-level annotation by jointly training to predict named entities and adding a corpus of weakly labeled data. In experiments on two Biocreative benchmark datasets, we achieve state of the art performance on the Biocreative V Chemical Disease Relation dataset for models without external KB resources. We also introduce a new dataset an order of magnitude larger than existing human-annotated biological information extraction datasets and more accurate than distantly supervised alternatives.


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Generalizing to Unseen Entities and Entity Pairs with Row-less Universal Schema
Patrick Verga | Arvind Neelakantan | Andrew McCallum
Proceedings of the 15th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Volume 1, Long Papers

Universal schema predicts the types of entities and relations in a knowledge base (KB) by jointly embedding the union of all available schema types—not only types from multiple structured databases (such as Freebase or Wikipedia infoboxes), but also types expressed as textual patterns from raw text. This prediction is typically modeled as a matrix completion problem, with one type per column, and either one or two entities per row (in the case of entity types or binary relation types, respectively). Factorizing this sparsely observed matrix yields a learned vector embedding for each row and each column. In this paper we explore the problem of making predictions for entities or entity-pairs unseen at training time (and hence without a pre-learned row embedding). We propose an approach having no per-row parameters at all; rather we produce a row vector on the fly using a learned aggregation function of the vectors of the observed columns for that row. We experiment with various aggregation functions, including neural network attention models. Our approach can be understood as a natural language database, in that questions about KB entities are answered by attending to textual or database evidence. In experiments predicting both relations and entity types, we demonstrate that despite having an order of magnitude fewer parameters than traditional universal schema, we can match the accuracy of the traditional model, and more importantly, we can now make predictions about unseen rows with nearly the same accuracy as rows available at training time.

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Fast and Accurate Entity Recognition with Iterated Dilated Convolutions
Emma Strubell | Patrick Verga | David Belanger | Andrew McCallum
Proceedings of the 2017 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Today when many practitioners run basic NLP on the entire web and large-volume traffic, faster methods are paramount to saving time and energy costs. Recent advances in GPU hardware have led to the emergence of bi-directional LSTMs as a standard method for obtaining per-token vector representations serving as input to labeling tasks such as NER (often followed by prediction in a linear-chain CRF). Though expressive and accurate, these models fail to fully exploit GPU parallelism, limiting their computational efficiency. This paper proposes a faster alternative to Bi-LSTMs for NER: Iterated Dilated Convolutional Neural Networks (ID-CNNs), which have better capacity than traditional CNNs for large context and structured prediction. Unlike LSTMs whose sequential processing on sentences of length N requires O(N) time even in the face of parallelism, ID-CNNs permit fixed-depth convolutions to run in parallel across entire documents. We describe a distinct combination of network structure, parameter sharing and training procedures that enable dramatic 14-20x test-time speedups while retaining accuracy comparable to the Bi-LSTM-CRF. Moreover, ID-CNNs trained to aggregate context from the entire document are more accurate than Bi-LSTM-CRFs while attaining 8x faster test time speeds.


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Multilingual Relation Extraction using Compositional Universal Schema
Patrick Verga | David Belanger | Emma Strubell | Benjamin Roth | Andrew McCallum
Proceedings of the 2016 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

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Row-less Universal Schema
Patrick Verga | Andrew McCallum
Proceedings of the 5th Workshop on Automated Knowledge Base Construction