Pavel Petrushkov


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Integrated Training for Sequence-to-Sequence Models Using Non-Autoregressive Transformer
Evgeniia Tokarchuk | Jan Rosendahl | Weiyue Wang | Pavel Petrushkov | Tomer Lancewicki | Shahram Khadivi | Hermann Ney
Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Spoken Language Translation (IWSLT 2021)

Complex natural language applications such as speech translation or pivot translation traditionally rely on cascaded models. However,cascaded models are known to be prone to error propagation and model discrepancy problems. Furthermore, there is no possibility of using end-to-end training data in conventional cascaded systems, meaning that the training data most suited for the task cannot be used.Previous studies suggested several approaches for integrated end-to-end training to overcome those problems, however they mostly rely on(synthetic or natural) three-way data. We propose a cascaded model based on the non-autoregressive Transformer that enables end-to-end training without the need for an explicit intermediate representation. This new architecture (i) avoids unnecessary early decisions that can cause errors which are then propagated throughout the cascaded models and (ii) utilizes the end-to-end training data directly. We conduct an evaluation on two pivot-based machine translation tasks, namely French→German and German→Czech. Our experimental results show that the proposed architecture yields an improvement of more than 2 BLEU for French→German over the cascaded baseline.


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Pivot-based Transfer Learning for Neural Machine Translation between Non-English Languages
Yunsu Kim | Petre Petrov | Pavel Petrushkov | Shahram Khadivi | Hermann Ney
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

We present effective pre-training strategies for neural machine translation (NMT) using parallel corpora involving a pivot language, i.e., source-pivot and pivot-target, leading to a significant improvement in source-target translation. We propose three methods to increase the relation among source, pivot, and target languages in the pre-training: 1) step-wise training of a single model for different language pairs, 2) additional adapter component to smoothly connect pre-trained encoder and decoder, and 3) cross-lingual encoder training via autoencoding of the pivot language. Our methods greatly outperform multilingual models up to +2.6% BLEU in WMT 2019 French-German and German-Czech tasks. We show that our improvements are valid also in zero-shot/zero-resource scenarios.


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Word-based Domain Adaptation for Neural Machine Translation
Shen Yan | Leonard Dahlmann | Pavel Petrushkov | Sanjika Hewavitharana | Shahram Khadivi
Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Spoken Language Translation

In this paper, we empirically investigate applying word-level weights to adapt neural machine translation to e-commerce domains, where small e-commerce datasets and large out-of-domain datasets are available. In order to mine in-domain like words in the out-of-domain datasets, we compute word weights by using a domain-specific and a non-domain-specific language model followed by smoothing and binary quantization. The baseline model is trained on mixed in-domain and out-of-domain datasets. Experimental results on En → Zh e-commerce domain translation show that compared to continuing training without word weights, it improves MT quality by up to 3.11% BLEU absolute and 1.59% TER. We have also trained models using fine-tuning on the in-domain data. Pre-training a model with word weights improves fine-tuning up to 1.24% BLEU absolute and 1.64% TER, respectively.

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Learning from Chunk-based Feedback in Neural Machine Translation
Pavel Petrushkov | Shahram Khadivi | Evgeny Matusov
Proceedings of the 56th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)

We empirically investigate learning from partial feedback in neural machine translation (NMT), when partial feedback is collected by asking users to highlight a correct chunk of a translation. We propose a simple and effective way of utilizing such feedback in NMT training. We demonstrate how the common machine translation problem of domain mismatch between training and deployment can be reduced solely based on chunk-level user feedback. We conduct a series of simulation experiments to test the effectiveness of the proposed method. Our results show that chunk-level feedback outperforms sentence based feedback by up to 2.61% BLEU absolute.


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Neural Machine Translation Leveraging Phrase-based Models in a Hybrid Search
Leonard Dahlmann | Evgeny Matusov | Pavel Petrushkov | Shahram Khadivi
Proceedings of the 2017 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

In this paper, we introduce a hybrid search for attention-based neural machine translation (NMT). A target phrase learned with statistical MT models extends a hypothesis in the NMT beam search when the attention of the NMT model focuses on the source words translated by this phrase. Phrases added in this way are scored with the NMT model, but also with SMT features including phrase-level translation probabilities and a target language model. Experimental results on German-to-English news domain and English-to-Russian e-commerce domain translation tasks show that using phrase-based models in NMT search improves MT quality by up to 2.3% BLEU absolute as compared to a strong NMT baseline.