Pedro Henrique Martins


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Empirical Assessment of kNN-MT for Real-World Translation Scenarios
Pedro Henrique Martins | João Alves | Tânia Vaz | Madalena Gonçalves | Beatriz Silva | Marianna Buchicchio | José G. C. de Souza | André F. T. Martins
Proceedings of the 24th Annual Conference of the European Association for Machine Translation

This paper aims to investigate the effectiveness of the k-Nearest Neighbor Machine Translation model (kNN-MT) in real-world scenarios. kNN-MT is a retrieval-augmented framework that combines the advantages of parametric models with non-parametric datastores built using a set of parallel sentences. Previous studies have primarily focused on evaluating the model using only the BLEU metric and have not tested kNN-MT in real world scenarios. Our study aims to fill this gap by conducting a comprehensive analysis on various datasets comprising different language pairs and different domains, using multiple automatic metrics and expert evaluated Multidimensional Quality Metrics (MQM). We compare kNN-MT with two alternate strategies: fine-tuning all the model parameters and adapter-based finetuning. Finally, we analyze the effect of the datastore size on translation quality, and we examine the number of entries necessary to bootstrap and configure the index.


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Unbabel-IST at the WMT Chat Translation Shared Task
João Alves | Pedro Henrique Martins | José G. C. de Souza | M. Amin Farajian | André F. T. Martins
Proceedings of the Seventh Conference on Machine Translation (WMT)

We present the joint contribution of IST and Unbabel to the WMT 2022 Chat Translation Shared Task. We participated in all six language directions (English ↔ German, English ↔ French, English ↔ Brazilian Portuguese). Due to the lack of domain-specific data, we use mBART50, a large pretrained language model trained on millions of sentence-pairs, as our base model. We fine-tune it using a two step fine-tuning process. In the first step, we fine-tune the model on publicly available data. In the second step, we use the validation set. After having a domain specific model, we explore the use of kNN-MT as a way of incorporating domain-specific data at decoding time.

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-former: Infinite Memory Transformer
Pedro Henrique Martins | Zita Marinho | Andre Martins
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Transformers are unable to model long-term memories effectively, since the amount of computation they need to perform grows with the context length. While variations of efficient transformers have been proposed, they all have a finite memory capacity and are forced to drop old information. In this paper, we propose the -former, which extends the vanilla transformer with an unbounded long-term memory. By making use of a continuous-space attention mechanism to attend over the long-term memory, the -former’s attention complexity becomes independent of the context length, trading off memory length with precision.In order to control where precision is more important, -former maintains “sticky memories,” being able to model arbitrarily long contexts while keeping the computation budget fixed.Experiments on a synthetic sorting task, language modeling, and document grounded dialogue generation demonstrate the -former’s ability to retain information from long sequences.

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Chunk-based Nearest Neighbor Machine Translation
Pedro Henrique Martins | Zita Marinho | André F. T. Martins
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Semi-parametric models, which augment generation with retrieval, have led to impressive results in language modeling and machine translation, due to their ability to retrieve fine-grained information from a datastore of examples. One of the most prominent approaches, kNN-MT, exhibits strong domain adaptation capabilities by retrieving tokens from domain-specific datastores (Khandelwal et al., 2021). However, kNN-MT requires an expensive retrieval operation for every single generated token, leading to a very low decoding speed (around 8 times slower than a parametric model). In this paper, we introduce a chunk-based kNN-MT model which retrieves chunks of tokens from the datastore, instead of a single token. We propose several strategies for incorporating the retrieved chunks into the generation process, and for selecting the steps at which the model needs to search for neighbors in the datastore. Experiments on machine translation in two settings, static and “on-the-fly” domain adaptation, show that the chunk-based kNN-MT model leads to significant speed-ups (up to 4 times) with only a small drop in translation quality.


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The GEM Benchmark: Natural Language Generation, its Evaluation and Metrics
Sebastian Gehrmann | Tosin Adewumi | Karmanya Aggarwal | Pawan Sasanka Ammanamanchi | Anuoluwapo Aremu | Antoine Bosselut | Khyathi Raghavi Chandu | Miruna-Adriana Clinciu | Dipanjan Das | Kaustubh Dhole | Wanyu Du | Esin Durmus | Ondřej Dušek | Chris Chinenye Emezue | Varun Gangal | Cristina Garbacea | Tatsunori Hashimoto | Yufang Hou | Yacine Jernite | Harsh Jhamtani | Yangfeng Ji | Shailza Jolly | Mihir Kale | Dhruv Kumar | Faisal Ladhak | Aman Madaan | Mounica Maddela | Khyati Mahajan | Saad Mahamood | Bodhisattwa Prasad Majumder | Pedro Henrique Martins | Angelina McMillan-Major | Simon Mille | Emiel van Miltenburg | Moin Nadeem | Shashi Narayan | Vitaly Nikolaev | Andre Niyongabo Rubungo | Salomey Osei | Ankur Parikh | Laura Perez-Beltrachini | Niranjan Ramesh Rao | Vikas Raunak | Juan Diego Rodriguez | Sashank Santhanam | João Sedoc | Thibault Sellam | Samira Shaikh | Anastasia Shimorina | Marco Antonio Sobrevilla Cabezudo | Hendrik Strobelt | Nishant Subramani | Wei Xu | Diyi Yang | Akhila Yerukola | Jiawei Zhou
Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Natural Language Generation, Evaluation, and Metrics (GEM 2021)

We introduce GEM, a living benchmark for natural language Generation (NLG), its Evaluation, and Metrics. Measuring progress in NLG relies on a constantly evolving ecosystem of automated metrics, datasets, and human evaluation standards. Due to this moving target, new models often still evaluate on divergent anglo-centric corpora with well-established, but flawed, metrics. This disconnect makes it challenging to identify the limitations of current models and opportunities for progress. Addressing this limitation, GEM provides an environment in which models can easily be applied to a wide set of tasks and in which evaluation strategies can be tested. Regular updates to the benchmark will help NLG research become more multilingual and evolve the challenge alongside models. This paper serves as the description of the data for the 2021 shared task at the associated GEM Workshop.


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Sparse Text Generation
Pedro Henrique Martins | Zita Marinho | André F. T. Martins
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Current state-of-the-art text generators build on powerful language models such as GPT-2, achieving impressive performance. However, to avoid degenerate text, they require sampling from a modified softmax, via temperature parameters or ad-hoc truncation techniques, as in top-k or nucleus sampling. This creates a mismatch between training and testing conditions. In this paper, we use the recently introduced entmax transformation to train and sample from a natively sparse language model, avoiding this mismatch. The result is a text generator with favorable performance in terms of fluency and consistency, fewer repetitions, and n-gram diversity closer to human text. In order to evaluate our model, we propose three new metrics for comparing sparse or truncated distributions: 𝜖-perplexity, sparsemax score, and Jensen-Shannon divergence. Human-evaluated experiments in story completion and dialogue generation show that entmax sampling leads to more engaging and coherent stories and conversations.


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Joint Learning of Named Entity Recognition and Entity Linking
Pedro Henrique Martins | Zita Marinho | André F. T. Martins
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Student Research Workshop

Named entity recognition (NER) and entity linking (EL) are two fundamentally related tasks, since in order to perform EL, first the mentions to entities have to be detected. However, most entity linking approaches disregard the mention detection part, assuming that the correct mentions have been previously detected. In this paper, we perform joint learning of NER and EL to leverage their relatedness and obtain a more robust and generalisable system. For that, we introduce a model inspired by the Stack-LSTM approach. We observe that, in fact, doing multi-task learning of NER and EL improves the performance in both tasks when comparing with models trained with individual objectives. Furthermore, we achieve results competitive with the state-of-the-art in both NER and EL.