This paper presents the first Thai Nested Named Entity Recognition (N-NER) dataset. Thai N-NER consists of 264,798 mentions, 104 classes, and a maximum depth of 8 layers obtained from 4,894 documents in the domains of news articles and restaurant reviews. Our work, to the best of our knowledge, presents the largest non-English N-NER dataset and the first non-English one with fine-grained classes. To understand the new challenges our proposed dataset brings to the field, we conduct an experimental study on (i) cutting edge N-NER models with the state-of-the-art accuracy in English and (ii) baseline methods based on well-known language model architectures. From the experimental results, we obtained two key findings. First, all models produced poor F1 scores in the tail region of the class distribution. There is little or no performance improvement provided by these models with respect to the baseline methods with our Thai dataset. These findings suggest that further investigation is required to make a multilingual N-NER solution that works well across different languages.
Cross-Lingual Retrieval Question Answering (CL-ReQA) is concerned with retrieving answer documents or passages to a question written in a different language. A common approach to CL-ReQA is to create a multilingual sentence embedding space such that question-answer pairs across different languages are close to each other. In this paper, we propose a novel CL-ReQA method utilizing the concept of language knowledge transfer and a new cross-lingual consistency training technique to create a multilingual embedding space for ReQA. To assess the effectiveness of our work, we conducted comprehensive experiments on CL-ReQA and a downstream task, machine reading QA. We compared our proposed method with the current state-of-the-art solutions across three public CL-ReQA corpora. Our method outperforms competitors in 19 out of 21 settings of CL-ReQA. When used with a downstream machine reading QA task, our method outperforms the best existing language-model-based method by 10% in F1 while being 10 times faster in sentence embedding computation. The code and models are available at https://github.com/mrpeerat/CL-ReLKT.
Sentence representations are essential in many NLP tasks operating at the sentence level.Recently, research attention has shifted towards learning how to represent sentences without any annotations, i.e., unsupervised representation learning. Despite the benefit of training without supervised data, there is still a performance penalty compared to supervised methods.Furthermore, the supervised-unsupervised performance gap widens as we reduce the model size. In this paper, we propose an unsupervised sentence representation method to reduce the supervised-unsupervised performance gap, especially for smaller models. Utilizing the concept for knowledge distillation, we derive a distillation framework comprising two training objectives, control and generalize, called ConGen. Experiments on semantic textual similarity (STS), text classification (transfer), and natural language inference (NLI) tasks show that ConGen is on par with supervised training even on smaller models.Furthermore, our method consistently outperformed competitors on multilingual STS.The code and models are available at https://github.com/KornWtp/ConGen.
Cross-lingual Sentence Retrieval (CLSR) aims at retrieving parallel sentence pairs that are translations of each other from a multilingual set of comparable documents. The retrieved parallel sentence pairs can be used in other downstream NLP tasks such as machine translation and cross-lingual word sense disambiguation. We propose a CLSR framework called Robust Fragment-level Representation (RFR) CLSR framework to address Out-of-Domain (OOD) CLSR problems. In particular, we improve the sentence retrieval robustness by representing each sentence as a collection of fragments. In this way, we change the retrieval granularity from the sentence to the fragment level. We performed CLSR experiments based on three OOD datasets, four language pairs, and three base well-known sentence encoders: m-USE, LASER, and LaBSE. Experimental results show that RFR significantly improves the base encoders’ performance for more than 85% of the cases.
Like many Natural Language Processing tasks, Thai word segmentation is domain-dependent. Researchers have been relying on transfer learning to adapt an existing model to a new domain. However, this approach is inapplicable to cases where we can interact with only input and output layers of the models, also known as “black boxes”. We propose a filter-and-refine solution based on the stacked-ensemble learning paradigm to address this black-box limitation. We conducted extensive experimental studies comparing our method against state-of-the-art models and transfer learning. Experimental results show that our proposed solution is an effective domain adaptation method and has a similar performance as the transfer learning method.