This paper proposes a new task regarding event reason extraction from document-level texts. Unlike the previous causality detection task, we do not assign target events in the text, but only provide structural event descriptions, and such settings accord more with practice scenarios. Moreover, we annotate a large dataset FinReason for evaluation, which provides Reasons annotation for Financial events in company announcements. This task is challenging because the cases of multiple-events, multiple-reasons, and implicit-reasons are included. In total, FinReason contains 8,794 documents, 12,861 financial events and 11,006 reason spans. We also provide the performance of existing canonical methods in event extraction and machine reading comprehension on this task. The results show a 7 percentage point F1 score gap between the best model and human performance, and existing methods are far from resolving this problem.
Named entity recognition (NER) is well studied for the general domain, and recent systems have achieved human-level performance for identifying common entity types. However, the NER performance is still moderate for specialized domains that tend to feature complicated contexts and jargonistic entity types. To address these challenges, we propose explicitly connecting entity mentions based on both global coreference relations and local dependency relations for building better entity mention representations. In our experiments, we incorporate entity mention relations by Graph Neural Networks and show that our system noticeably improves the NER performance on two datasets from different domains. We further show that the proposed lightweight system can effectively elevate the NER performance to a higher level even when only a tiny amount of labeled data is available, which is desirable for domain-specific NER.
Event information is usually scattered across multiple sentences within a document. The local sentence-level event extractors often yield many noisy event role filler extractions in the absence of a broader view of the document-level context. Filtering spurious extractions and aggregating event information in a document remains a challenging problem. Following the observation that a document has several relevant event regions densely populated with event role fillers, we build graphs with candidate role filler extractions enriched by sentential embeddings as nodes, and use graph attention networks to identify event regions in a document and aggregate event information. We characterize edges between candidate extractions in a graph into rich vector representations to facilitate event region identification. The experimental results on two datasets of two languages show that our approach yields new state-of-the-art performance for the challenging event extraction task.