Peijun Qing


pdf bib
Prompt Space Optimizing Few-shot Reasoning Success with Large Language Models
Fobo Shi | Peijun Qing | Dong Yang | Nan Wang | Youbo Lei | Haonan Lu | Xiaodong Lin | Duantengchuan Li
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: NAACL 2024

Prompt engineering is an essential technique for enhancing the abilities of large language models (LLMs) by providing explicit and specific instructions. It enables LLMs to excel in various tasks, such as arithmetic reasoning, question answering, summarization, relation extraction, machine translation, and sentiment analysis. Researchers have been actively exploring different prompt engineering strategies, such as Chain of Thought (CoT), Zero-CoT, and In-context learning. However, an unresolved problem arises from the fact that current approaches lack a solid mathematical solution for determining optimal prompts. To address this issue in prompt engineering, we propose a new and effective approach called Prompt Space. Our methodology utilizes text embeddings to obtain basis vectors by matrix decomposition, and then constructs a space for representing all prompts. Prompt Space significantly outperforms state-of-the-art prompt paradigms on ten public reasoning benchmarks. Notably, without the help of the CoT method and the prompt “Let’s think step by step”, Prompt Space shows superior performance over the few-shot method. Overall, our approach provides a robust and effective mathematical framework for selecting simple and effective prompts. This advancement marks a significant step towards improving prompt engineering for a wide variety of applications in LLMs. Our code is publicly available at


pdf bib
GammaE: Gamma Embeddings for Logical Queries on Knowledge Graphs
Dong Yang | Peijun Qing | Yang Li | Haonan Lu | Xiaodong Lin
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Embedding knowledge graphs (KGs) for multi-hop logical reasoning is a challenging problem due to massive and complicated structures in many KGs. Recently, many promising works projected entities and queries into a geometric space to efficiently find answers. However, it remains challenging to model the negation and union operator. The negation operator has no strict boundaries, which generates overlapped embeddings and leads to obtaining ambiguous answers. An additional limitation is that the union operator is non-closure, which undermines the model to handle a series of union operators. To address these problems, we propose a novel probabilistic embedding model, namely Gamma Embeddings (GammaE), for encoding entities and queries to answer different types of FOL queries on KGs. We utilize the linear property and strong boundary support of the Gamma distribution to capture more features of entities and queries, which dramatically reduces model uncertainty. Furthermore, GammaE implements the Gamma mixture method to design the closed union operator. The performance of GammaE is validated on three large logical query datasets. Experimental results show that GammaE significantly outperforms state-of-the-art models on public benchmarks.