Peiyu Liu


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Do Emergent Abilities Exist in Quantized Large Language Models: An Empirical Study
Peiyu Liu | Zikang Liu | Ze-Feng Gao | Dawei Gao | Wayne Xin Zhao | Yaliang Li | Bolin Ding | Ji-Rong Wen
Proceedings of the 2024 Joint International Conference on Computational Linguistics, Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC-COLING 2024)

Despite the superior performance, Large Language Models (LLMs) require significant computational resources for deployment and use. To overcome this issue, quantization methods have been widely applied to reduce the memory footprint of LLMs as well as increase the inference rate. However, a major challenge is that low-bit quantization methods often lead to performance degradation. It is important to understand how quantization impacts the capacity of LLMs. Different from previous studies focused on overall performance, this work aims to investigate the impact of quantization on emergent abilities, which are important characteristics that distinguish LLMs from small language models. Specifically, we examine the abilities of in-context learning, chain-of-thought reasoning, and instruction-following in quantized LLMs. Our empirical experiments show that these emergent abilities still exist in 4-bit quantization models, while 2-bit models encounter severe performance degradation on the test of these abilities. To improve the performance of low-bit models, we conduct two special experiments: (1) fine-gained impact analysis that studies which components (or substructures) are more sensitive to quantization, and (2) performance compensation through model fine-tuning. Our work derives a series of important findings to understand the impact of quantization on emergent abilities and sheds light on the possibilities of extremely low-bit quantization for LLMs.

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Enhancing Parameter-efficient Fine-tuning with Simple Calibration Based on Stable Rank
Peiyu Liu | Ze-Feng Gao | Xiao Zhang | Wayne Xin Zhao | Ji-Rong Wen
Proceedings of the 2024 Joint International Conference on Computational Linguistics, Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC-COLING 2024)

Lightweight fine-tuning is widely used as an important technique for efficiently adapting pre-trained language models (PLM) to downstream tasks. Despite the reduction in trainable parameters, existing lightweight fine-tuning methods are found to be effective in low-resource settings but often fail in high-resource settings, leading to unreliable outcomes. This limitation can be attributed to inflexible strategies: they identify the parameters of the model to be trained before fine-tuning and remain unchanged without taking into account the inherent variance of generalization ability in model components (i.e., feed-forward, attention layers) and potential changes during the fine-tuning process. In this paper, we introduce a simple but effective calibration for lightweight fine-tuning PLMs based on the matrix’s stable rank according to both model components and the training process. We proposed both theoretical analyses and experimental verification for the proposed calibration strategy. Considering efficiency, we further propose time-aware and structure-aware strategies to determine the most crucial time to commence the fine-tuning procedure and selectively apply parameter matrices for lightweight fine-tuning, respectively. Extensive experiments demonstrate the superiority of our proposed fine-tuning approach (average improvement 3.1 for GLUE score compared to lightweight fine-tuning method).

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HyperMR: Hyperbolic Hypergraph Multi-hop Reasoning for Knowledge-based Visual Question Answering
Bin Wang | Fuyong Xu | Peiyu Liu | Zhenfang Zhu
Proceedings of the 2024 Joint International Conference on Computational Linguistics, Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC-COLING 2024)

Knowledge-based Visual Question Answering (KBVQA) is a challenging task, which aims to answer an image related question based on external knowledge. Most of the works describe the semantic distance using the actual Euclidean distance between two nodes, which leads to distortion in modeling knowledge graphs with hierarchical and scale-free structure in KBVQA, and limits the multi-hop reasoning capability of the model. In contrast, the hyperbolic space shows exciting prospects for low-distortion embedding of graphs with hierarchical and free-scale structure. In addition, we map the different stages of reasoning into multiple adjustable hyperbolic spaces, achieving low-distortion, fine-grained reasoning. Extensive experiments on the KVQA, PQ and PQL datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of HyperMR for strong-hierarchy knowledge graphs.

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Tram: A Token-level Retrieval-augmented Mechanism for Source Code Summarization
Tong Ye | Lingfei Wu | Tengfei Ma | Xuhong Zhang | Yangkai Du | Peiyu Liu | Shouling Ji | Wenhai Wang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: NAACL 2024

Automatically generating human-readable text describing the functionality of a program is the intent of source code summarization. Although neural language models achieve significant performance in this field, they are limited by their inability to access external knowledge. To address this limitation, an emerging trend is combining neural models with external knowledge through retrieval methods. Previous methods have relied on the sentence-level retrieval paradigm on the encoder side. However, this paradigm is coarse-grained, noise-filled and cannot directly take advantage of the high-quality retrieved summary tokens on the decoder side. In this paper, we propose a fine-grained Token-level retrieval-augmented mechanism (Tram) on the decoder side rather than the encoder side to enhance the performance of neural models and produce more low-frequency tokens in generating summaries. Furthermore, to overcome the challenge of token-level retrieval in capturing contextual code semantics, we also propose integrating code semantics into individual summary tokens. The results of extensive experiments and human evaluation show that our token-level retrieval-augmented approach significantly improves performance and is more interpretable.


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Enhancing Scalability of Pre-trained Language Models via Efficient Parameter Sharing
Peiyu Liu | Ze-Feng Gao | Yushuo Chen | Xin Zhao | Ji-Rong Wen
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

In this paper, we propose a highly parameter-efficient approach to scaling pre-trained language models (PLMs) to a deeper model depth. Unlike prior work that shares all parameters or uses extra blocks, we design a more capable parameter-sharing architecture based on matrix product operator (MPO), an efficient tensor decomposition method to factorize the parameter matrix into a set of local tensors. Based on such a decomposition, we share the important local tensor across all layers for reducing the model size and meanwhile keep layer-specific tensors (also using Adapters) for enhancing the adaptation flexibility. To improve the model training, we further propose a stable initialization algorithm tailored for the MPO-based architecture. Extensive experiments have demonstrated the effectiveness of our proposed model in enhancing scalability and achieving higher performance (i.e., with fewer parameters than BERT-base, we successfully scale the model depth by a factor of 4x and even achieve 0.1 points higher than BERT-large for GLUE score). The code to reproduce the results of this paper can be found at

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CP-BCS: Binary Code Summarization Guided by Control Flow Graph and Pseudo Code
Tong Ye | Lingfei Wu | Tengfei Ma | Xuhong Zhang | Yangkai Du | Peiyu Liu | Shouling Ji | Wenhai Wang
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Automatically generating function summaries for binaries is an extremely valuable but challenging task, since it involves translating the execution behavior and semantics of the low-level language (assembly code) into human-readable natural language. However, most current works on understanding assembly code are oriented towards generating function names, which involve numerous abbreviations that make them still confusing. To bridge this gap, we focus on generating complete summaries for binary functions, especially for stripped binary (no symbol table and debug information in reality). To fully exploit the semantics of assembly code, we present a control flow graph and pseudo code guided binary code summarization framework called CP-BCS. CP-BCS utilizes a bidirectional instruction-level control flow graph and pseudo code that incorporates expert knowledge to learn the comprehensive binary function execution behavior and logic semantics. We evaluate CP-BCS on 3 different binary optimization levels (O1, O2, and O3) for 3 different computer architectures (X86, X64, and ARM). The evaluation results demonstrate CP-BCS is superior and significantly improves the efficiency of reverse engineering.

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Small Pre-trained Language Models Can be Fine-tuned as Large Models via Over-Parameterization
Ze-Feng Gao | Kun Zhou | Peiyu Liu | Wayne Xin Zhao | Ji-Rong Wen
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

By scaling the model size, large pre-trained language models (PLMs) have shown remarkable performance in various natural language processing tasks, mostly outperforming small PLMs by a large margin. However, due to the high computational cost, the huge number of parameters also restricts the applicability of large PLMs in real-world systems. In this paper, we focus on scaling up the parameters of PLMs only during fine-tuning, to benefit from the over-parameterization, while without increasing the inference latency. Given a relatively small PLM, we over-parameterize it by employing a matrix product operator, an efficient and almost lossless decomposition method to factorize its contained parameter matrices into a set of higher-dimensional tensors.Considering the efficiency, we further propose both static and dynamic strategies to select the most important parameter matrices for over-parameterization.Extensive experiments have demonstrated that our approach can significantly boost the fine-tuning performance of small PLMs and even help small PLMs outperform parameterized larger ones.Our code is publicly available at


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Parameter-Efficient Mixture-of-Experts Architecture for Pre-trained Language Models
Ze-Feng Gao | Peiyu Liu | Wayne Xin Zhao | Zhong-Yi Lu | Ji-Rong Wen
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Recently, Mixture-of-Experts (short as MoE) architecture has achieved remarkable success in increasing the model capacity of large-scale language models. However, MoE requires incorporating significantly more parameters than the base model being extended. In this paper, we propose building a parameter-efficient MoE architecture by sharing information across experts. We adopt matrix product operator (MPO, a tensor decomposition from quantum many-body physics) to reconstruct the parameter matrix in the expert layer and increase model capacity for pre-trained language models by sharing parameters of the central tensor (containing the core information) among different experts while enabling the specificity through the auxiliary tensors (complementing the central tensor) of different experts. To address the unbalanced optimization issue, we further design the gradient mask strategy for the MPO-based MoE architecture. Extensive experiments based on T5 and GPT-2 show improved performance and efficiency of the pre-trained language model (27.2x reduction in total parameters for the superior model performance, compared with the Switch Transformers). Our code is publicly available at


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Enabling Lightweight Fine-tuning for Pre-trained Language Model Compression based on Matrix Product Operators
Peiyu Liu | Ze-Feng Gao | Wayne Xin Zhao | Zhi-Yuan Xie | Zhong-Yi Lu | Ji-Rong Wen
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

This paper presents a novel pre-trained language models (PLM) compression approach based on the matrix product operator (short as MPO) from quantum many-body physics. It can decompose an original matrix into central tensors (containing the core information) and auxiliary tensors (with only a small proportion of parameters). With the decomposed MPO structure, we propose a novel fine-tuning strategy by only updating the parameters from the auxiliary tensors, and design an optimization algorithm for MPO-based approximation over stacked network architectures. Our approach can be applied to the original or the compressed PLMs in a general way, which derives a lighter network and significantly reduces the parameters to be fine-tuned. Extensive experiments have demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed approach in model compression, especially the reduction in fine-tuning parameters (91% reduction on average). The code to reproduce the results of this paper can be found at