Pengfei Hong


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InstructEval: Towards Holistic Evaluation of Instruction-Tuned Large Language Models
Yew Ken Chia | Pengfei Hong | Lidong Bing | Soujanya Poria
Proceedings of the First edition of the Workshop on the Scaling Behavior of Large Language Models (SCALE-LLM 2024)

Instruction-tuned large language models have revolutionized natural language processing and have shown great potential in applications such as conversational agents. These models, such as GPT-4, can not only master language but also solve complex tasks in areas like mathematics, coding, medicine, and law. However, there is still a lack of comprehensive understanding regarding their full potential, primarily due to the black-box nature of many models and lack of holistic evaluation. To address these challenges, we present InstructEval, a more comprehensive evaluation suite designed specifically for instruction-tuned large language models. Unlike previous works, our evaluation involves a rigorous assessment of models based on problem-solving, writing ability, and alignment to human values. We take a holistic approach to analyze various factors affecting model performance, including the pretraining foundation, instruction-tuning data, and training methods. Our findings reveal that the quality of instruction data is a crucial factor in scaling model performance. While open-source models demonstrate impressive writing abilities, there is substantial room for improvement in problem-solving and alignment.


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Uncertainty Guided Label Denoising for Document-level Distant Relation Extraction
Qi Sun | Kun Huang | Xiaocui Yang | Pengfei Hong | Kun Zhang | Soujanya Poria
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Document-level relation extraction (DocRE) aims to infer complex semantic relations among entities in a document. Distant supervision (DS) is able to generate massive auto-labeled data, which can improve DocRE performance. Recent works leverage pseudo labels generated by the pre-denoising model to reduce noise in DS data. However, unreliable pseudo labels bring new noise, e.g., adding false pseudo labels and losing correct DS labels. Therefore, how to select effective pseudo labels to denoise DS data is still a challenge in document-level distant relation extraction. To tackle this issue, we introduce uncertainty estimation technology to determine whether pseudo labels can be trusted. In this work, we propose a Document-level distant Relation Extraction framework with Uncertainty Guided label denoising, UGDRE. Specifically, we propose a novel instance-level uncertainty estimation method, which measures the reliability of the pseudo labels with overlapping relations. By further considering the long-tail problem, we design dynamic uncertainty thresholds for different types of relations to filter high-uncertainty pseudo labels. We conduct experiments on two public datasets. Our framework outperforms strong baselines by 1.91 F1 and 2.28 Ign F1 on the RE-DocRED dataset.

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A Robust Information-Masking Approach for Domain Counterfactual Generation
Pengfei Hong | Rishabh Bhardwaj | Navonil Majumder | Somak Aditya | Soujanya Poria
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Domain shift is a big challenge in NLP. Many approaches, thus, resort to learning domain-invariant features to mitigate the hurdles of domain shift during inference. Such methods, however, inexorably fail to leverage the domain-specific nuances relevant to the task at hand. To avoid such drawbacks, domain counterfactual generation has recently been proposed that aims to transform a text from the source domain to a given target domain. To achieve this, the existing method uses a frequency-based approach to identify and mask the source-domain-specific tokens in a text. A pretrained LM is then prompted to fill the masks with target-domain-specific tokens. We, however, have observed that, due to limitations of the available data, such a frequency-based method may either miss some domain-token associations or lead to some spurious domain-token associations. To this end, we additionally employ attention norm-based scores to identify additional token-domain associations from a domain classifier. To minimize spurious associations, we also devise an iterative unmasking heuristic that unmasks the masked tokens to minimize the confidence of a domain classifier in the source domain. Our experiments empirically show that the counterfactual samples sourced from our masked text lead to improved domain transfer across various classification tasks. The proposed approach outperforms the baselines on 10 out of 12 domain-counterfactual classification settings with an average of 1.7% improvement in accuracy metric.

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Few-shot Joint Multimodal Aspect-Sentiment Analysis Based on Generative Multimodal Prompt
Xiaocui Yang | Shi Feng | Daling Wang | Qi Sun | Wenfang Wu | Yifei Zhang | Pengfei Hong | Soujanya Poria
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

We have witnessed the rapid proliferation of multimodal data on numerous social media platforms. Conventional studies typically require massive labeled data to train models for Multimodal Aspect-Based Sentiment Analysis (MABSA). However, collecting and annotating fine-grained multimodal data for MABSA is tough. To alleviate the above issue, we perform three MABSA-related tasks with quite a small number of labeled multimodal samples. We first build diverse and comprehensive multimodal few-shot datasets according to the data distribution. To capture the specific prompt for each aspect term in a few-shot scenario, we propose a novel Generative Multimodal Prompt (GMP) model for MABSA, which includes the Multimodal Encoder module and the N-Stream Decoders module. We further introduce a subtask to predict the number of aspect terms in each instance to construct the multimodal prompt. Extensive experiments on two datasets demonstrate that our approach outperforms strong baselines on two MABSA-related tasks in the few-shot setting.


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CIDER: Commonsense Inference for Dialogue Explanation and Reasoning
Deepanway Ghosal | Pengfei Hong | Siqi Shen | Navonil Majumder | Rada Mihalcea | Soujanya Poria
Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Meeting of the Special Interest Group on Discourse and Dialogue

Commonsense inference to understand and explain human language is a fundamental research problem in natural language processing. Explaining human conversations poses a great challenge as it requires contextual understanding, planning, inference, and several aspects of reasoning including causal, temporal, and commonsense reasoning. In this work, we introduce CIDER – a manually curated dataset that contains dyadic dialogue explanations in the form of implicit and explicit knowledge triplets inferred using contextual commonsense inference. Extracting such rich explanations from conversations can be conducive to improving several downstream applications. The annotated triplets are categorized by the type of commonsense knowledge present (e.g., causal, conditional, temporal). We set up three different tasks conditioned on the annotated dataset: Dialogue-level Natural Language Inference, Span Extraction, and Multi-choice Span Selection. Baseline results obtained with transformer-based models reveal that the tasks are difficult, paving the way for promising future research. The dataset and the baseline implementations are publicly available at


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MIME: MIMicking Emotions for Empathetic Response Generation
Navonil Majumder | Pengfei Hong | Shanshan Peng | Jiankun Lu | Deepanway Ghosal | Alexander Gelbukh | Rada Mihalcea | Soujanya Poria
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Current approaches to empathetic response generation view the set of emotions expressed in the input text as a flat structure, where all the emotions are treated uniformly. We argue that empathetic responses often mimic the emotion of the user to a varying degree, depending on its positivity or negativity and content. We show that the consideration of these polarity-based emotion clusters and emotional mimicry results in improved empathy and contextual relevance of the response as compared to the state-of-the-art. Also, we introduce stochasticity into the emotion mixture that yields emotionally more varied empathetic responses than the previous work. We demonstrate the importance of these factors to empathetic response generation using both automatic- and human-based evaluations. The implementation of MIME is publicly available at