Philip Schulz


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Unsupervised Cross-Lingual Transfer of Structured Predictors without Source Data
Kemal Kurniawan | Lea Frermann | Philip Schulz | Trevor Cohn
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Providing technologies to communities or domains where training data is scarce or protected e.g., for privacy reasons, is becoming increasingly important. To that end, we generalise methods for unsupervised transfer from multiple input models for structured prediction. We show that the means of aggregating over the input models is critical, and that multiplying marginal probabilities of substructures to obtain high-probability structures for distant supervision is substantially better than taking the union of such structures over the input models, as done in prior work. Testing on 18 languages, we demonstrate that the method works in a cross-lingual setting, considering both dependency parsing and part-of-speech structured prediction problems. Our analyses show that the proposed method produces less noisy labels for the distant supervision.


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PTST-UoM at SemEval-2021 Task 10: Parsimonious Transfer for Sequence Tagging
Kemal Kurniawan | Lea Frermann | Philip Schulz | Trevor Cohn
Proceedings of the 15th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation (SemEval-2021)

This paper describes PTST, a source-free unsupervised domain adaptation technique for sequence tagging, and its application to the SemEval-2021 Task 10 on time expression recognition. PTST is an extension of the cross-lingual parsimonious parser transfer framework, which uses high-probability predictions of the source model as a supervision signal in self-training. We extend the framework to a sequence prediction setting, and demonstrate its applicability to unsupervised domain adaptation. PTST achieves F1 score of 79.6% on the official test set, with the precision of 90.1%, the highest out of 14 submissions.

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PPT: Parsimonious Parser Transfer for Unsupervised Cross-Lingual Adaptation
Kemal Kurniawan | Lea Frermann | Philip Schulz | Trevor Cohn
Proceedings of the 16th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Main Volume

Cross-lingual transfer is a leading technique for parsing low-resource languages in the absence of explicit supervision. Simple ‘direct transfer’ of a learned model based on a multilingual input encoding has provided a strong benchmark. This paper presents a method for unsupervised cross-lingual transfer that improves over direct transfer systems by using their output as implicit supervision as part of self-training on unlabelled text in the target language. The method assumes minimal resources and provides maximal flexibility by (a) accepting any pre-trained arc-factored dependency parser; (b) assuming no access to source language data; (c) supporting both projective and non-projective parsing; and (d) supporting multi-source transfer. With English as the source language, we show significant improvements over state-of-the-art transfer models on both distant and nearby languages, despite our conceptually simpler approach. We provide analyses of the choice of source languages for multi-source transfer, and the advantage of non-projective parsing. Our code is available online.


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Grounding learning of modifier dynamics: An application to color naming
Xudong Han | Philip Schulz | Trevor Cohn
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Grounding is crucial for natural language understanding. An important subtask is to understand modified color expressions, such as “light blue”. We present a model of color modifiers that, compared with previous additive models in RGB space, learns more complex transformations. In addition, we present a model that operates in the HSV color space. We show that certain adjectives are better modeled in that space. To account for all modifiers, we train a hard ensemble model that selects a color space depending on the modifier-color pair. Experimental results show significant and consistent improvements compared to the state-of-the-art baseline model.


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A Stochastic Decoder for Neural Machine Translation
Philip Schulz | Wilker Aziz | Trevor Cohn
Proceedings of the 56th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

The process of translation is ambiguous, in that there are typically many valid translations for a given sentence. This gives rise to significant variation in parallel corpora, however, most current models of machine translation do not account for this variation, instead treating the problem as a deterministic process. To this end, we present a deep generative model of machine translation which incorporates a chain of latent variables, in order to account for local lexical and syntactic variation in parallel corpora. We provide an in-depth analysis of the pitfalls encountered in variational inference for training deep generative models. Experiments on several different language pairs demonstrate that the model consistently improves over strong baselines.

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Variational Inference and Deep Generative Models
Wilker Aziz | Philip Schulz
Proceedings of the 56th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Tutorial Abstracts

NLP has seen a surge in neural network models in recent years. These models provide state-of-the-art performance on many supervised tasks. Unsupervised and semi-supervised learning has only been addressed scarcely, however. Deep generative models (DGMs) make it possible to integrate neural networks with probabilistic graphical models. Using DGMs one can easily design latent variable models that account for missing observations and thereby enable unsupervised and semi-supervised learning with neural networks. The method of choice for training these models is variational inference. This tutorial offers a general introduction to variational inference followed by a thorough and example-driven discussion of how to use variational methods for training DGMs. It provides both the mathematical background necessary for deriving the learning algorithms as well as practical implementation guidelines. Importantly, the tutorial will cover models with continuous and discrete variables. We provide practical coding exercises implemented in IPython notebooks as well as short notes on the more intricate mathematical details that the audience can use as a reference after the tutorial. We expect that with these additional materials the tutorial will have a long-lasting impact on the community.


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Fast Collocation-Based Bayesian HMM Word Alignment
Philip Schulz | Wilker Aziz
Proceedings of COLING 2016, the 26th International Conference on Computational Linguistics: Technical Papers

We present a new Bayesian HMM word alignment model for statistical machine translation. The model is a mixture of an alignment model and a language model. The alignment component is a Bayesian extension of the standard HMM. The language model component is responsible for the generation of words needed for source fluency reasons from source language context. This allows for untranslatable source words to remain unaligned and at the same time avoids the introduction of artificial NULL words which introduces unusually long alignment jumps. Existing Bayesian word alignment models are unpractically slow because they consider each target position when resampling a given alignment link. The sampling complexity therefore grows linearly in the target sentence length. In order to make our model useful in practice, we devise an auxiliary variable Gibbs sampler that allows us to resample alignment links in constant time independently of the target sentence length. This leads to considerable speed improvements. Experimental results show that our model performs as well as existing word alignment toolkits in terms of resulting BLEU score.

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Word Alignment without NULL Words
Philip Schulz | Wilker Aziz | Khalil Sima’an
Proceedings of the 54th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)