Counterfactual statements describe events that did not or cannot take place. We consider the problem of counterfactual detection (CFD) in product reviews. For this purpose, we annotate a multilingual CFD dataset from Amazon product reviews covering counterfactual statements written in English, German, and Japanese languages. The dataset is unique as it contains counterfactuals in multiple languages, covers a new application area of e-commerce reviews, and provides high quality professional annotations. We train CFD models using different text representation methods and classifiers. We find that these models are robust against the selectional biases introduced due to cue phrase-based sentence selection. Moreover, our CFD dataset is compatible with prior datasets and can be merged to learn accurate CFD models. Applying machine translation on English counterfactual examples to create multilingual data performs poorly, demonstrating the language-specificity of this problem, which has been ignored so far.
Accurate detection of emotions in user- generated text was shown to have several applications for e-commerce, public well-being, and disaster management. Currently, the state-of-the-art performance for emotion detection in text is obtained using complex, deep learning models trained on domain-specific, labeled data. In this paper, we propose ESTeR , an unsupervised model for identifying emotions using a novel similarity function based on random walks on graphs. Our model combines large-scale word co-occurrence information with word-associations from lexicons avoiding not only the dependence on labeled datasets, but also an explicit mapping of words to latent spaces used in emotion-enriched word embeddings. Our similarity function can also be computed efficiently. We study a range of datasets including recent tweets related to COVID-19 to illustrate the superior performance of our model and report insights on public emotions during the on-going pandemic.