Prafulla Kumar Choubey

Also published as: Prafulla Choubey


2022

pdf bib
Predicting Sentence Deletions for Text Simplification Using a Functional Discourse Structure
Bohan Zhang | Prafulla Kumar Choubey | Ruihong Huang
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)

Document-level text simplification often deletes some sentences besides performing lexical, grammatical or structural simplification to reduce text complexity. In this work, we focus on sentence deletions for text simplification and use a news genre-specific functional discourse structure, which categorizes sentences based on their contents and their function roles in telling a news story, for predicting sentence deletion. We incorporate sentence categories into a neural net model in two ways for predicting sentence deletions, either as additional features or by jointly predicting sentence deletions and sentence categories. Experimental results using human-annotated data show that incorporating the functional structure improves the recall of sentence deletion prediction by 6.5% and 10.7% respectively using the two methods, and improves the overall F1-score by 3.6% and 4.3% respectively.

pdf bib
Modeling Document-level Temporal Structures for Building Temporal Dependency Graphs
Prafulla Kumar Choubey | Ruihong Huang
Proceedings of the 2nd Conference of the Asia-Pacific Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 12th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing

We propose to leverage news discourse profiling to model document-level temporal structures for building temporal dependency graphs. Our key observation is that the functional roles of sentences used for profiling news discourse signify different time frames relevant to a news story and can, therefore, help to recover the global temporal structure of a document. Our analyses and experiments with the widely used knowledge distillation technique show that discourse profiling effectively identifies distant inter-sentence event and (or) time expression pairs that are temporally related and otherwise difficult to locate.

2021

pdf bib
Automatic Data Acquisition for Event Coreference Resolution
Prafulla Kumar Choubey | Ruihong Huang
Proceedings of the 16th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Main Volume

We propose to leverage lexical paraphrases and high precision rules informed by news discourse structure to automatically collect coreferential and non-coreferential event pairs from unlabeled English news articles. We perform both manual validation and empirical evaluation on multiple evaluation datasets with different event domains and text genres to assess the quality of our acquired event pairs. We found that a model trained on our acquired event pairs performs comparably as the supervised model when applied to new data out of the training data domains. Further, augmenting human-annotated data with the acquired event pairs provides empirical performance gains on both in-domain and out-of-domain evaluation datasets.

pdf bib
GFST: Gender-Filtered Self-Training for More Accurate Gender in Translation
Prafulla Kumar Choubey | Anna Currey | Prashant Mathur | Georgiana Dinu
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Targeted evaluations have found that machine translation systems often output incorrect gender in translations, even when the gender is clear from context. Furthermore, these incorrectly gendered translations have the potential to reflect or amplify social biases. We propose gender-filtered self-training (GFST) to improve gender translation accuracy on unambiguously gendered inputs. Our GFST approach uses a source monolingual corpus and an initial model to generate gender-specific pseudo-parallel corpora which are then filtered and added to the training data. We evaluate GFST on translation from English into five languages, finding that it improves gender accuracy without damaging generic quality. We also show the viability of GFST on several experimental settings, including re-training from scratch, fine-tuning, controlling the gender balance of the data, forward translation, and back-translation.

pdf bib
Profiling News Discourse Structure Using Explicit Subtopic Structures Guided Critics
Prafulla Kumar Choubey | Ruihong Huang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2021

We present an actor-critic framework to induce subtopical structures in a news article for news discourse profiling. The model uses multiple critics that act according to known subtopic structures while the actor aims to outperform them. The content structures constitute sentences that represent latent subtopic boundaries. Then, we introduce a hierarchical neural network that uses the identified subtopic boundary sentences to model multi-level interaction between sentences, subtopics, and the document. Experimental results and analyses on the NewsDiscourse corpus show that the actor model learns to effectively segment a document into subtopics and improves the performance of the hierarchical model on the news discourse profiling task.

2020

pdf bib
One Classifier for All Ambiguous Words: Overcoming Data Sparsity by Utilizing Sense Correlations Across Words
Prafulla Kumar Choubey | Ruihong Huang
Proceedings of the Twelfth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

Most supervised word sense disambiguation (WSD) systems build word-specific classifiers by leveraging labeled data. However, when using word-specific classifiers, the sparseness of annotations leads to inferior sense disambiguation performance on less frequently seen words. To combat data sparsity, we propose to learn a single model that derives sense representations and meanwhile enforces congruence between a word instance and its right sense by using both sense-annotated data and lexical resources. The model is shared across words that allows utilizing sense correlations across words, and therefore helps to transfer common disambiguation rules from annotation-rich words to annotation-lean words. Empirical evaluation on benchmark datasets shows that the proposed shared model outperforms the equivalent classifier-based models by 1.7%, 2.5% and 3.8% in F1-score when using GloVe, ELMo and BERT word embeddings respectively.

pdf bib
Discourse as a Function of Event: Profiling Discourse Structure in News Articles around the Main Event
Prafulla Kumar Choubey | Aaron Lee | Ruihong Huang | Lu Wang
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Understanding discourse structures of news articles is vital to effectively contextualize the occurrence of a news event. To enable computational modeling of news structures, we apply an existing theory of functional discourse structure for news articles that revolves around the main event and create a human-annotated corpus of 802 documents spanning over four domains and three media sources. Next, we propose several document-level neural-network models to automatically construct news content structures. Finally, we demonstrate that incorporating system predicted news structures yields new state-of-the-art performance for event coreference resolution. The news documents we annotated are openly available and the annotations are publicly released for future research.

2019

pdf bib
In Plain Sight: Media Bias Through the Lens of Factual Reporting
Lisa Fan | Marshall White | Eva Sharma | Ruisi Su | Prafulla Kumar Choubey | Ruihong Huang | Lu Wang
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

The increasing prevalence of political bias in news media calls for greater public awareness of it, as well as robust methods for its detection. While prior work in NLP has primarily focused on the lexical bias captured by linguistic attributes such as word choice and syntax, other types of bias stem from the actual content selected for inclusion in the text. In this work, we investigate the effects of informational bias: factual content that can nevertheless be deployed to sway reader opinion. We first produce a new dataset, BASIL, of 300 news articles annotated with 1,727 bias spans and find evidence that informational bias appears in news articles more frequently than lexical bias. We further study our annotations to observe how informational bias surfaces in news articles by different media outlets. Lastly, a baseline model for informational bias prediction is presented by fine-tuning BERT on our labeled data, indicating the challenges of the task and future directions.

pdf bib
Improving Dialogue State Tracking by Discerning the Relevant Context
Sanuj Sharma | Prafulla Kumar Choubey | Ruihong Huang
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long and Short Papers)

A typical conversation comprises of multiple turns between participants where they go back and forth between different topics. At each user turn, dialogue state tracking (DST) aims to estimate user’s goal by processing the current utterance. However, in many turns, users implicitly refer to the previous goal, necessitating the use of relevant dialogue history. Nonetheless, distinguishing relevant history is challenging and a popular method of using dialogue recency for that is inefficient. We, therefore, propose a novel framework for DST that identifies relevant historical context by referring to the past utterances where a particular slot-value changes and uses that together with weighted system utterance to identify the relevant context. Specifically, we use the current user utterance and the most recent system utterance to determine the relevance of a system utterance. Empirical analyses show that our method improves joint goal accuracy by 2.75% and 2.36% on WoZ 2.0 and Multi-WoZ restaurant domain datasets respectively over the previous state-of-the-art GLAD model.

pdf bib
Modeling Document-level Causal Structures for Event Causal Relation Identification
Lei Gao | Prafulla Kumar Choubey | Ruihong Huang
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long and Short Papers)

We aim to comprehensively identify all the event causal relations in a document, both within a sentence and across sentences, which is important for reconstructing pivotal event structures. The challenges we identified are two: 1) event causal relations are sparse among all possible event pairs in a document, in addition, 2) few causal relations are explicitly stated. Both challenges are especially true for identifying causal relations between events across sentences. To address these challenges, we model rich aspects of document-level causal structures for achieving comprehensive causal relation identification. The causal structures include heavy involvements of document-level main events in causal relations as well as several types of fine-grained constraints that capture implications from certain sentential syntactic relations and discourse relations as well as interactions between event causal relations and event coreference relations. Our experimental results show that modeling the global and fine-grained aspects of causal structures using Integer Linear Programming (ILP) greatly improves the performance of causal relation identification, especially in identifying cross-sentence causal relations.

2018

pdf bib
Identifying the Most Dominant Event in a News Article by Mining Event Coreference Relations
Prafulla Kumar Choubey | Kaushik Raju | Ruihong Huang
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 2 (Short Papers)

Identifying the most dominant and central event of a document, which governs and connects other foreground and background events in the document, is useful for many applications, such as text summarization, storyline generation and text segmentation. We observed that the central event of a document usually has many coreferential event mentions that are scattered throughout the document for enabling a smooth transition of subtopics. Our empirical experiments, using gold event coreference relations, have shown that the central event of a document can be well identified by mining properties of event coreference chains. But the performance drops when switching to system predicted event coreference relations. In addition, we found that the central event can be more accurately identified by further considering the number of sub-events as well as the realis status of an event.

pdf bib
Improving Event Coreference Resolution by Modeling Correlations between Event Coreference Chains and Document Topic Structures
Prafulla Kumar Choubey | Ruihong Huang
Proceedings of the 56th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

This paper proposes a novel approach for event coreference resolution that models correlations between event coreference chains and document topical structures through an Integer Linear Programming formulation. We explicitly model correlations between the main event chains of a document with topic transition sentences, inter-coreference chain correlations, event mention distributional characteristics and sub-event structure, and use them with scores obtained from a local coreference relation classifier for jointly resolving multiple event chains in a document. Our experiments across KBP 2016 and 2017 datasets suggest that each of the structures contribute to improving event coreference resolution performance.

2017

pdf bib
A Sequential Model for Classifying Temporal Relations between Intra-Sentence Events
Prafulla Kumar Choubey | Ruihong Huang
Proceedings of the 2017 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

We present a sequential model for temporal relation classification between intra-sentence events. The key observation is that the overall syntactic structure and compositional meanings of the multi-word context between events are important for distinguishing among fine-grained temporal relations. Specifically, our approach first extracts a sequence of context words that indicates the temporal relation between two events, which well align with the dependency path between two event mentions. The context word sequence, together with a parts-of-speech tag sequence and a dependency relation sequence that are generated corresponding to the word sequence, are then provided as input to bidirectional recurrent neural network (LSTM) models. The neural nets learn compositional syntactic and semantic representations of contexts surrounding the two events and predict the temporal relation between them. Evaluation of the proposed approach on TimeBank corpus shows that sequential modeling is capable of accurately recognizing temporal relations between events, which outperforms a neural net model using various discrete features as input that imitates previous feature based models.

pdf bib
Event Coreference Resolution by Iteratively Unfolding Inter-dependencies among Events
Prafulla Kumar Choubey | Ruihong Huang
Proceedings of the 2017 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

We introduce a novel iterative approach for event coreference resolution that gradually builds event clusters by exploiting inter-dependencies among event mentions within the same chain as well as across event chains. Among event mentions in the same chain, we distinguish within- and cross-document event coreference links by using two distinct pairwise classifiers, trained separately to capture differences in feature distributions of within- and cross-document event clusters. Our event coreference approach alternates between WD and CD clustering and combines arguments from both event clusters after every merge, continuing till no more merge can be made. And then it performs further merging between event chains that are both closely related to a set of other chains of events. Experiments on the ECB+ corpus show that our model outperforms state-of-the-art methods in joint task of WD and CD event coreference resolution.

2016

pdf bib
AKTSKI at SemEval-2016 Task 5: Aspect Based Sentiment Analysis for Consumer Reviews
Shubham Pateria | Prafulla Choubey
Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation (SemEval-2016)

pdf bib
Garuda & Bhasha at SemEval-2016 Task 11: Complex Word Identification Using Aggregated Learning Models
Prafulla Choubey | Shubham Pateria
Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation (SemEval-2016)