Pranaydeep Singh


2021

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A Pilot Study for BERT Language Modelling and Morphological Analysis for Ancient and Medieval Greek
Pranaydeep Singh | Gorik Rutten | Els Lefever
Proceedings of the 5th Joint SIGHUM Workshop on Computational Linguistics for Cultural Heritage, Social Sciences, Humanities and Literature

This paper presents a pilot study to automatic linguistic preprocessing of Ancient and Byzantine Greek, and morphological analysis more specifically. To this end, a novel subword-based BERT language model was trained on the basis of a varied corpus of Modern, Ancient and Post-classical Greek texts. Consequently, the obtained BERT embeddings were incorporated to train a fine-grained Part-of-Speech tagger for Ancient and Byzantine Greek. In addition, a corpus of Greek Epigrams was manually annotated and the resulting gold standard was used to evaluate the performance of the morphological analyser on Byzantine Greek. The experimental results show very good perplexity scores (4.9) for the BERT language model and state-of-the-art performance for the fine-grained Part-of-Speech tagger for in-domain data (treebanks containing a mixture of Classical and Medieval Greek), as well as for the newly created Byzantine Greek gold standard data set. The language models and associated code are made available for use at https://github.com/pranaydeeps/Ancient-Greek-BERT

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LT3 at SemEval-2021 Task 6: Using Multi-Modal Compact Bilinear Pooling to Combine Visual and Textual Understanding in Memes
Pranaydeep Singh | Els Lefever
Proceedings of the 15th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation (SemEval-2021)

Internet memes have become ubiquitous in social media networks today. Due to their popularity, they are also a widely used mode of expression to spread disinformation online. As memes consist of a mixture of text and image, they require a multi-modal approach for automatic analysis. In this paper, we describe our contribution to the SemEval-2021 Detection of Persuasian Techniques in Texts and Images Task. We propose a Multi-Modal learning system, which incorporates “memebeddings”, viz. joint text and vision features by combining them with compact bilinear pooling, to automatically identify rhetorical and psychological disinformation techniques. The experimental results show that the proposed system constantly outperforms the competition’s baseline, and achieves the 2nd best Macro F1-score and 14th best Micro F1-score out of all participants.

2020

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LT3 at SemEval-2020 Task 8: Multi-Modal Multi-Task Learning for Memotion Analysis
Pranaydeep Singh | Nina Bauwelinck | Els Lefever
Proceedings of the Fourteenth Workshop on Semantic Evaluation

Internet memes have become a very popular mode of expression on social media networks today. Their multi-modal nature, caused by a mixture of text and image, makes them a very challenging research object for automatic analysis. In this paper, we describe our contribution to the SemEval-2020 Memotion Analysis Task. We propose a Multi-Modal Multi-Task learning system, which incorporates “memebeddings”, viz. joint text and vision features, to learn and optimize for all three Memotion subtasks simultaneously. The experimental results show that the proposed system constantly outperforms the competition’s baseline, and the system setup with continual learning (where tasks are trained sequentially) obtains the best classification F1-scores.

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LT3 at SemEval-2020 Task 9: Cross-lingual Embeddings for Sentiment Analysis of Hinglish Social Media Text
Pranaydeep Singh | Els Lefever
Proceedings of the Fourteenth Workshop on Semantic Evaluation

This paper describes our contribution to the SemEval-2020 Task 9 on Sentiment Analysis for Code-mixed Social Media Text. We investigated two approaches to solve the task of Hinglish sentiment analysis. The first approach uses cross-lingual embeddings resulting from projecting Hinglish and pre-trained English FastText word embeddings in the same space. The second approach incorporates pre-trained English embeddings that are incrementally retrained with a set of Hinglish tweets. The results show that the second approach performs best, with an F1-score of 70.52% on the held-out test data.

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Sentiment Analysis for Hinglish Code-mixed Tweets by means of Cross-lingual Word Embeddings
Pranaydeep Singh | Els Lefever
Proceedings of the The 4th Workshop on Computational Approaches to Code Switching

This paper investigates the use of unsupervised cross-lingual embeddings for solving the problem of code-mixed social media text understanding. We specifically investigate the use of these embeddings for a sentiment analysis task for Hinglish Tweets, viz. English combined with (transliterated) Hindi. In a first step, baseline models, initialized with monolingual embeddings obtained from large collections of tweets in English and code-mixed Hinglish, were trained. In a second step, two systems using cross-lingual embeddings were researched, being (1) a supervised classifier and (2) a transfer learning approach trained on English sentiment data and evaluated on code-mixed data. We demonstrate that incorporating cross-lingual embeddings improves the results (F1-score of 0.635 versus a monolingual baseline of 0.616), without any parallel data required to train the cross-lingual embeddings. In addition, the results show that the cross-lingual embeddings not only improve the results in a fully supervised setting, but they can also be used as a base for distant supervision, by training a sentiment model in one of the source languages and evaluating on the other language projected in the same space. The transfer learning experiments result in an F1-score of 0.556, which is almost on par with the supervised settings and speak to the robustness of the cross-lingual embeddings approach.

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Identifying Cognates in English-Dutch and French-Dutch by means of Orthographic Information and Cross-lingual Word Embeddings
Els Lefever | Sofie Labat | Pranaydeep Singh
Proceedings of the 12th Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

This paper investigates the validity of combining more traditional orthographic information with cross-lingual word embeddings to identify cognate pairs in English-Dutch and French-Dutch. In a first step, lists of potential cognate pairs in English-Dutch and French-Dutch are manually labelled. The resulting gold standard is used to train and evaluate a multi-layer perceptron that can distinguish cognates from non-cognates. Fifteen orthographic features capture string similarities between source and target words, while the cosine similarity between their word embeddings represents the semantic relation between these words. By adding domain-specific information to pretrained fastText embeddings, we are able to obtain good embeddings for words that did not yet have a pretrained embedding (e.g. Dutch compound nouns). These embeddings are then aligned in a cross-lingual vector space by exploiting their structural similarity (cf. adversarial learning). Our results indicate that although the classifier already achieves good results on the basis of orthographic information, the performance further improves by including semantic information in the form of cross-lingual word embeddings.