Qi Shi


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Explanation Graph Generation via Generative Pre-training over Synthetic Graphs
Han Cui | Shangzhan Li | Yu Zhang | Qi Shi
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

The generation of explanation graphs is a significant task that aims to produce explanation graphs in response to user input, revealing the internal reasoning process. This task is challenging due to the significant discrepancy be- tween unstructured user queries and structured explanation graphs. Current research commonly fine-tunes a text-based pre-trained language model on a small downstream dataset that is annotated with labeled graphs. However, due to the limited scale of available datasets, this approach may prove to be insufficient in bridging the gap between natural language text and structured graphs. In this paper, to alleviate the above limitations, we propose a novel pre-trained framework EG3P(for Explanation Graph Generation via Generative Pre-training over synthetic graphs) for the explanation graph generation task. Specifically, we first propose a text-to-graph generative task to pre-train the model with the goal of bridging the text-graph gap. Additionally, we propose an automatic corpus synthesis strategy for synthesizing a large scale of high-quality corpus, reducing the reliance on costly manual annotation methods. Experimental results on ExplaGraphs show the effectiveness of EG3P that our model surpasses all baseline systems with remarkable margins. Besides, further analysis demonstrates that EG3P is able to generate better explanation graphs on actual reasoning tasks such as CommonsenseQA and OpenbookQA.


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JointLK: Joint Reasoning with Language Models and Knowledge Graphs for Commonsense Question Answering
Yueqing Sun | Qi Shi | Le Qi | Yu Zhang
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Existing KG-augmented models for commonsense question answering primarily focus on designing elaborate Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) to model knowledge graphs (KGs). However, they ignore (i) the effectively fusing and reasoning over question context representations and the KG representations, and (ii) automatically selecting relevant nodes from the noisy KGs during reasoning. In this paper, we propose a novel model, JointLK, which solves the above limitations through the joint reasoning of LM and GNN and the dynamic KGs pruning mechanism. Specifically, JointLK performs joint reasoning between LM and GNN through a novel dense bidirectional attention module, in which each question token attends on KG nodes and each KG node attends on question tokens, and the two modal representations fuse and update mutually by multi-step interactions. Then, the dynamic pruning module uses the attention weights generated by joint reasoning to prune irrelevant KG nodes recursively. We evaluate JointLK on the CommonsenseQA and OpenBookQA datasets, and demonstrate its improvements to the existing LM and LM+KG models, as well as its capability to perform interpretable reasoning.

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LEMON: Language-Based Environment Manipulation via Execution-Guided Pre-training
Qi Shi | Qian Liu | Bei Chen | Yu Zhang | Ting Liu | Jian-Guang Lou
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

Language-based environment manipulation requires agents to manipulate the environment following natural language instructions, which is challenging due to the huge space of the environments. To address this challenge, various approaches have been proposed in recent work. Although these approaches work well for their intended environments, they are difficult to generalize across environments. In this work, we propose LEMON, a general framework for language-based environment manipulation tasks. Specifically, we first specify a general approach for language-based environment manipulation tasks, which can deal with various environments using the same generative language model. Then we propose an execution-guided pre-training strategy to inject prior knowledge of environments to the language model with a pure synthetic pre-training corpus. Experimental results on tasks including Alchemy, Scene, Tangrams, ProPara and Recipes demonstrate the effectiveness of LEMON: it achieves new state-of-the-art results on four of the tasks, and the execution-guided pre-training strategy brings remarkable improvements on all experimental tasks.

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TSGP: Two-Stage Generative Prompting for Unsupervised Commonsense Question Answering
Yueqing Sun | Yu Zhang | Le Qi | Qi Shi
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

Without training on labeled task data, unsupervised commonsense question answering seems challenging since it requires commonsense knowledge beyond the context of questions. Previous methods typically retrieved from traditional knowledge bases or used pre-trained language models (PrLMs) to generate fixed types of knowledge, which have poor generalization ability. In this paper, we aim to address the above limitation by leveraging the implicit knowledge stored in PrLMs and propose a two-stage prompt-based unsupervised commonsense question answering framework (TSGP). We first use knowledge generation prompts to generate the knowledge required for questions with unlimited types and possible candidate answers independent of specified choices. Then, we further utilize answer generation prompts to generate possible candidate answers independent of specified choices. Experimental results and analysis on three different commonsense reasoning tasks, CommonsenseQA, OpenBookQA, and SocialIQA, demonstrate that TSGP significantly improves the reasoning ability of language models in unsupervised settings.


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Logic-level Evidence Retrieval and Graph-based Verification Network for Table-based Fact Verification
Qi Shi | Yu Zhang | Qingyu Yin | Ting Liu
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Table-based fact verification task aims to verify whether the given statement is supported by the given semi-structured table. Symbolic reasoning with logical operations plays a crucial role in this task. Existing methods leverage programs that contain rich logical information to enhance the verification process. However, due to the lack of fully supervised signals in the program generation process, spurious programs can be derived and employed, which leads to the inability of the model to catch helpful logical operations. To address the aforementioned problems, in this work, we formulate the table-based fact verification task as an evidence retrieval and reasoning framework, proposing the Logic-level Evidence Retrieval and Graph-based Verification network (LERGV). Specifically, we first retrieve logic-level program-like evidence from the given table and statement as supplementary evidence for the table. After that, we construct a logic-level graph to capture the logical relations between entities and functions in the retrieved evidence, and design a graph-based verification network to perform logic-level graph-based reasoning based on the constructed graph to classify the final entailment relation. Experimental results on the large-scale benchmark TABFACT show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.


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Learn to Combine Linguistic and Symbolic Information for Table-based Fact Verification
Qi Shi | Yu Zhang | Qingyu Yin | Ting Liu
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Table-based fact verification is expected to perform both linguistic reasoning and symbolic reasoning. Existing methods lack attention to take advantage of the combination of linguistic information and symbolic information. In this work, we propose HeterTFV, a graph-based reasoning approach, that learns to combine linguistic information and symbolic information effectively. We first construct a program graph to encode programs, a kind of LISP-like logical form, to learn the semantic compositionality of the programs. Then we construct a heterogeneous graph to incorporate both linguistic information and symbolic information by introducing program nodes into the heterogeneous graph. Finally, we propose a graph-based reasoning approach to reason over the multiple types of nodes to make an effective combination of both types of information. Experimental results on a large-scale benchmark dataset TABFACT illustrate the effect of our approach.