Qi Zhang


2021

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Low-Resource Dialogue Summarization with Domain-Agnostic Multi-Source Pretraining
Yicheng Zou | Bolin Zhu | Xingwu Hu | Tao Gui | Qi Zhang
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

With the rapid increase in the volume of dialogue data from daily life, there is a growing demand for dialogue summarization. Unfortunately, training a large summarization model is generally infeasible due to the inadequacy of dialogue data with annotated summaries. Most existing works for low-resource dialogue summarization directly pretrain models in other domains, e.g., the news domain, but they generally neglect the huge difference between dialogues and conventional articles. To bridge the gap between out-of-domain pretraining and in-domain fine-tuning, in this work, we propose a multi-source pretraining paradigm to better leverage the external summary data. Specifically, we exploit large-scale in-domain non-summary data to separately pretrain the dialogue encoder and the summary decoder. The combined encoder-decoder model is then pretrained on the out-of-domain summary data using adversarial critics, aiming to facilitate domain-agnostic summarization. The experimental results on two public datasets show that with only limited training data, our approach achieves competitive performance and generalizes well in different dialogue scenarios.

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A Partition Filter Network for Joint Entity and Relation Extraction
Zhiheng Yan | Chong Zhang | Jinlan Fu | Qi Zhang | Zhongyu Wei
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

In joint entity and relation extraction, existing work either sequentially encode task-specific features, leading to an imbalance in inter-task feature interaction where features extracted later have no direct contact with those that come first. Or they encode entity features and relation features in a parallel manner, meaning that feature representation learning for each task is largely independent of each other except for input sharing. We propose a partition filter network to model two-way interaction between tasks properly, where feature encoding is decomposed into two steps: partition and filter. In our encoder, we leverage two gates: entity and relation gate, to segment neurons into two task partitions and one shared partition. The shared partition represents inter-task information valuable to both tasks and is evenly shared across two tasks to ensure proper two-way interaction. The task partitions represent intra-task information and are formed through concerted efforts of both gates, making sure that encoding of task-specific features is dependent upon each other. Experiment results on six public datasets show that our model performs significantly better than previous approaches. In addition, contrary to what previous work has claimed, our auxiliary experiments suggest that relation prediction is contributory to named entity prediction in a non-negligible way. The source code can be found at https://github.com/Coopercoppers/PFN.

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Learning Implicit Sentiment in Aspect-based Sentiment Analysis with Supervised Contrastive Pre-Training
Zhengyan Li | Yicheng Zou | Chong Zhang | Qi Zhang | Zhongyu Wei
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Aspect-based sentiment analysis aims to identify the sentiment polarity of a specific aspect in product reviews. We notice that about 30% of reviews do not contain obvious opinion words, but still convey clear human-aware sentiment orientation, which is known as implicit sentiment. However, recent neural network-based approaches paid little attention to implicit sentiment entailed in the reviews. To overcome this issue, we adopt Supervised Contrastive Pre-training on large-scale sentiment-annotated corpora retrieved from in-domain language resources. By aligning the representation of implicit sentiment expressions to those with the same sentiment label, the pre-training process leads to better capture of both implicit and explicit sentiment orientation towards aspects in reviews. Experimental results show that our method achieves state-of-the-art performance on SemEval2014 benchmarks, and comprehensive analysis validates its effectiveness on learning implicit sentiment.

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Thinking Clearly, Talking Fast: Concept-Guided Non-Autoregressive Generation for Open-Domain Dialogue Systems
Yicheng Zou | Zhihua Liu | Xingwu Hu | Qi Zhang
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Human dialogue contains evolving concepts, and speakers naturally associate multiple concepts to compose a response. However, current dialogue models with the seq2seq framework lack the ability to effectively manage concept transitions and can hardly introduce multiple concepts to responses in a sequential decoding manner. To facilitate a controllable and coherent dialogue, in this work, we devise a concept-guided non-autoregressive model (CG-nAR) for open-domain dialogue generation. The proposed model comprises a multi-concept planning module that learns to identify multiple associated concepts from a concept graph and a customized Insertion Transformer that performs concept-guided non-autoregressive generation to complete a response. The experimental results on two public datasets show that CG-nAR can produce diverse and coherent responses, outperforming state-of-the-art baselines in both automatic and human evaluations with substantially faster inference speed.

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Iterative GNN-based Decoder for Question Generation
Zichu Fei | Qi Zhang | Yaqian Zhou
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Natural question generation (QG) aims to generate questions from a passage, and generated questions are answered from the passage. Most models with state-of-the-art performance model the previously generated text at each decoding step. However, (1) they ignore the rich structure information that is hidden in the previously generated text. (2) they ignore the impact of copied words on the passage. We perceive that information in previously generated words serves as auxiliary information in subsequent generation. To address these problems, we design the Iterative Graph Network-based Decoder (IGND) to model the previous generation using a Graph Neural Network at each decoding step. Moreover, our graph model captures dependency relations in the passage that boost the generation. Experimental results demonstrate that our model outperforms the state-of-the-art models with sentence-level QG tasks on SQuAD and MARCO datasets.

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Heterogeneous Graph Neural Networks for Keyphrase Generation
Jiacheng Ye | Ruijian Cai | Tao Gui | Qi Zhang
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

The encoder–decoder framework achieves state-of-the-art results in keyphrase generation (KG) tasks by predicting both present keyphrases that appear in the source document and absent keyphrases that do not. However, relying solely on the source document can result in generating uncontrollable and inaccurate absent keyphrases. To address these problems, we propose a novel graph-based method that can capture explicit knowledge from related references. Our model first retrieves some document-keyphrases pairs similar to the source document from a pre-defined index as references. Then a heterogeneous graph is constructed to capture relations with different levels of granularity of the source document and its retrieved references. To guide the decoding process, a hierarchical attention and copy mechanism is introduced, which directly copies appropriate words from both source document and its references based on their relevance and significance. The experimental results on multiple KG benchmarks show that the proposed model achieves significant improvements against other baseline models, especially with regard to the absent keyphrase prediction.

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Searching for an Effective Defender: Benchmarking Defense against Adversarial Word Substitution
Zongyi Li | Jianhan Xu | Jiehang Zeng | Linyang Li | Xiaoqing Zheng | Qi Zhang | Kai-Wei Chang | Cho-Jui Hsieh
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Recent studies have shown that deep neural network-based models are vulnerable to intentionally crafted adversarial examples, and various methods have been proposed to defend against adversarial word-substitution attacks for neural NLP models. However, there is a lack of systematic study on comparing different defense approaches under the same attacking setting. In this paper, we seek to fill the gap of systematic studies through comprehensive researches on understanding the behavior of neural text classifiers trained by various defense methods under representative adversarial attacks. In addition, we propose an effective method to further improve the robustness of neural text classifiers against such attacks, and achieved the highest accuracy on both clean and adversarial examples on AGNEWS and IMDB datasets by a significant margin. We hope this study could provide useful clues for future research on text adversarial defense. Codes are available at https://github.com/RockyLzy/TextDefender.

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A Relation-Oriented Clustering Method for Open Relation Extraction
Jun Zhao | Tao Gui | Qi Zhang | Yaqian Zhou
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

The clustering-based unsupervised relation discovery method has gradually become one of the important methods of open relation extraction (OpenRE). However, high-dimensional vectors can encode complex linguistic information which leads to the problem that the derived clusters cannot explicitly align with the relational semantic classes. In this work, we propose a relation-oriented clustering model and use it to identify the novel relations in the unlabeled data. Specifically, to enable the model to learn to cluster relational data, our method leverages the readily available labeled data of pre-defined relations to learn a relation-oriented representation. We minimize distance between the instance with same relation by gathering the instances towards their corresponding relation centroids to form a cluster structure, so that the learned representation is cluster-friendly. To reduce the clustering bias on predefined classes, we optimize the model by minimizing a joint objective on both labeled and unlabeled data. Experimental results show that our method reduces the error rate by 29.2% and 15.7%, on two datasets respectively, compared with current SOTA methods.

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Leveraging Argumentation Knowledge Graph for Interactive Argument Pair Identification
Jian Yuan | Zhongyu Wei | Donghua Zhao | Qi Zhang | Changjian Jiang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL-IJCNLP 2021

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Keyphrase Generation with Fine-Grained Evaluation-Guided Reinforcement Learning
Yichao Luo | Yige Xu | Jiacheng Ye | Xipeng Qiu | Qi Zhang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2021

Aiming to generate a set of keyphrases, Keyphrase Generation (KG) is a classical task for capturing the central idea from a given document. Based on Seq2Seq models, the previous reinforcement learning framework on KG tasks utilizes the evaluation metrics to further improve the well-trained neural models. However, these KG evaluation metrics such as F1@5 and F1@M are only aware of the exact correctness of predictions on phrase-level and ignore the semantic similarities between similar predictions and targets, which inhibits the model from learning deep linguistic patterns. In response to this problem, we propose a new fine-grained evaluation metric to improve the RL framework, which considers different granularities: token-level F1 score, edit distance, duplication, and prediction quantities. On the whole, the new framework includes two reward functions: the fine-grained evaluation score and the vanilla F1 score. This framework helps the model identifying some partial match phrases which can be further optimized as the exact match ones. Experiments on KG benchmarks show that our proposed training framework outperforms the previous RL training frameworks among all evaluation scores. In addition, our method can effectively ease the synonym problem and generate a higher quality prediction. The source code is available at https://github.com/xuyige/FGRL4KG.

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An Edge-Enhanced Hierarchical Graph-to-Tree Network for Math Word Problem Solving
Qinzhuo Wu | Qi Zhang | Zhongyu Wei
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2021

Math word problem solving has attracted considerable research interest in recent years. Previous works have shown the effectiveness of utilizing graph neural networks to capture the relationships in the problem. However, these works did not carefully take the edge label information and the long-range word relationship across sentences into consideration. In addition, during generation, they focus on the most relevant areas of the currently generated word, while neglecting the rest of the problem. In this paper, we propose a novel Edge-Enhanced Hierarchical Graph-to-Tree model (EEH-G2T), in which the math word problems are represented as edge-labeled graphs. Specifically, an edge-enhanced hierarchical graph encoder is used to incorporate edge label information. This encoder updates the graph nodes hierarchically in two steps: sentence-level aggregation and problem-level aggregation. Furthermore, a tree-structured decoder with a split attention mechanism is applied to guide the model to pay attention to different parts of the input problem. Experimental results on the MAWPS and Math23K dataset showed that our EEH-G2T can effectively improve performance compared with state-of-the-art methods.

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An Empirical Assessment of the Qualitative Aspects of Misinformation in Health News
Chaoyuan Zuo | Qi Zhang | Ritwik Banerjee
Proceedings of the Fourth Workshop on NLP for Internet Freedom: Censorship, Disinformation, and Propaganda

The explosion of online health news articles runs the risk of the proliferation of low-quality information. Within the existing work on fact-checking, however, relatively little attention has been paid to medical news. We present a health news classification task to determine whether medical news articles satisfy a set of review criteria deemed important by medical experts and health care journalists. We present a dataset of 1,119 health news paired with systematic reviews. The review criteria consist of six elements that are essential to the accuracy of medical news. We then present experiments comparing the classical token-based approach with the more recent transformer-based models. Our results show that detecting qualitative lapses is a challenging task with direct ramifications in misinformation, but is an important direction to pursue beyond assigning True or False labels to short claims.

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MedAI at SemEval-2021 Task 10: Negation-aware Pre-training for Source-free Negation Detection Domain Adaptation
Jinquan Sun | Qi Zhang | Yu Wang | Lei Zhang
Proceedings of the 15th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation (SemEval-2021)

Due to the increasing concerns for data privacy, source-free unsupervised domain adaptation attracts more and more research attention, where only a trained source model is assumed to be available, while the labeled source data remain private. To get promising adaptation results, we need to find effective ways to transfer knowledge learned in source domain and leverage useful domain specific information from target domain at the same time. This paper describes our winning contribution to SemEval 2021 Task 10: Source-Free Domain Adaptation for Semantic Processing. Our key idea is to leverage the model trained on source domain data to generate pseudo labels for target domain samples. Besides, we propose Negation-aware Pre-training (NAP) to incorporate negation knowledge into model. Our method win the 1st place with F1-score of 0.822 on the official blind test set of Negation Detection Track.

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Larger-Context Tagging: When and Why Does It Work?
Jinlan Fu | Liangjing Feng | Qi Zhang | Xuanjing Huang | Pengfei Liu
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

The development of neural networks and pretraining techniques has spawned many sentence-level tagging systems that achieved superior performance on typical benchmarks. However, a relatively less discussed topic is what if more context information is introduced into current top-scoring tagging systems. Although several existing works have attempted to shift tagging systems from sentence-level to document-level, there is still no consensus conclusion about when and why it works, which limits the applicability of the larger-context approach in tagging tasks. In this paper, instead of pursuing a state-of-the-art tagging system by architectural exploration, we focus on investigating when and why the larger-context training, as a general strategy, can work. To this end, we conduct a thorough comparative study on four proposed aggregators for context information collecting and present an attribute-aided evaluation method to interpret the improvement brought by larger-context training. Experimentally, we set up a testbed based on four tagging tasks and thirteen datasets. Hopefully, our preliminary observations can deepen the understanding of larger-context training and enlighten more follow-up works on the use of contextual information.

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Discrete Argument Representation Learning for Interactive Argument Pair Identification
Lu Ji | Zhongyu Wei | Jing Li | Qi Zhang | Xuanjing Huang
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

In this paper, we focus on identifying interactive argument pairs from two posts with opposite stances to a certain topic. Considering opinions are exchanged from different perspectives of the discussing topic, we study the discrete representations for arguments to capture varying aspects in argumentation languages (e.g., the debate focus and the participant behavior). Moreover, we utilize hierarchical structure to model post-wise information incorporating contextual knowledge. Experimental results on the large-scale dataset collected from CMV show that our proposed framework can significantly outperform the competitive baselines. Further analyses reveal why our model yields superior performance and prove the usefulness of our learned representations.

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One2Set: Generating Diverse Keyphrases as a Set
Jiacheng Ye | Tao Gui | Yichao Luo | Yige Xu | Qi Zhang
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Recently, the sequence-to-sequence models have made remarkable progress on the task of keyphrase generation (KG) by concatenating multiple keyphrases in a predefined order as a target sequence during training. However, the keyphrases are inherently an unordered set rather than an ordered sequence. Imposing a predefined order will introduce wrong bias during training, which can highly penalize shifts in the order between keyphrases. In this work, we propose a new training paradigm One2Set without predefining an order to concatenate the keyphrases. To fit this paradigm, we propose a novel model that utilizes a fixed set of learned control codes as conditions to generate a set of keyphrases in parallel. To solve the problem that there is no correspondence between each prediction and target during training, we propose a K-step label assignment mechanism via bipartite matching, which greatly increases the diversity and reduces the repetition rate of generated keyphrases. The experimental results on multiple benchmarks demonstrate that our approach significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art methods.

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Math Word Problem Solving with Explicit Numerical Values
Qinzhuo Wu | Qi Zhang | Zhongyu Wei | Xuanjing Huang
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

In recent years, math word problem solving has received considerable attention and achieved promising results, but previous methods rarely take numerical values into consideration. Most methods treat the numerical values in the problems as number symbols, and ignore the prominent role of the numerical values in solving the problem. In this paper, we propose a novel approach called NumS2T, which enhances math word problem solving performance by explicitly incorporating numerical values into a sequence-to-tree network. In addition, a numerical properties prediction mechanism is used to capture the category and comparison information of numerals and measure their importance in global expressions. Experimental results on the Math23K and APE datasets demonstrate that our model achieves better performance than existing state-of-the-art models.

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SENT: Sentence-level Distant Relation Extraction via Negative Training
Ruotian Ma | Tao Gui | Linyang Li | Qi Zhang | Xuanjing Huang | Yaqian Zhou
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Distant supervision for relation extraction provides uniform bag labels for each sentence inside the bag, while accurate sentence labels are important for downstream applications that need the exact relation type. Directly using bag labels for sentence-level training will introduce much noise, thus severely degrading performance. In this work, we propose the use of negative training (NT), in which a model is trained using complementary labels regarding that “the instance does not belong to these complementary labels”. Since the probability of selecting a true label as a complementary label is low, NT provides less noisy information. Furthermore, the model trained with NT is able to separate the noisy data from the training data. Based on NT, we propose a sentence-level framework, SENT, for distant relation extraction. SENT not only filters the noisy data to construct a cleaner dataset, but also performs a re-labeling process to transform the noisy data into useful training data, thus further benefiting the model’s performance. Experimental results show the significant improvement of the proposed method over previous methods on sentence-level evaluation and de-noise effect.

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TextFlint: Unified Multilingual Robustness Evaluation Toolkit for Natural Language Processing
Xiao Wang | Qin Liu | Tao Gui | Qi Zhang | Yicheng Zou | Xin Zhou | Jiacheng Ye | Yongxin Zhang | Rui Zheng | Zexiong Pang | Qinzhuo Wu | Zhengyan Li | Chong Zhang | Ruotian Ma | Zichu Fei | Ruijian Cai | Jun Zhao | Xingwu Hu | Zhiheng Yan | Yiding Tan | Yuan Hu | Qiyuan Bian | Zhihua Liu | Shan Qin | Bolin Zhu | Xiaoyu Xing | Jinlan Fu | Yue Zhang | Minlong Peng | Xiaoqing Zheng | Yaqian Zhou | Zhongyu Wei | Xipeng Qiu | Xuanjing Huang
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing: System Demonstrations

TextFlint is a multilingual robustness evaluation toolkit for NLP tasks that incorporates universal text transformation, task-specific transformation, adversarial attack, subpopulation, and their combinations to provide comprehensive robustness analyses. This enables practitioners to automatically evaluate their models from various aspects or to customize their evaluations as desired with just a few lines of code. TextFlint also generates complete analytical reports as well as targeted augmented data to address the shortcomings of the model in terms of its robustness. To guarantee acceptability, all the text transformations are linguistically based and all the transformed data selected (up to 100,000 texts) scored highly under human evaluation. To validate the utility, we performed large-scale empirical evaluations (over 67,000) on state-of-the-art deep learning models, classic supervised methods, and real-world systems. The toolkit is already available at https://github.com/textflint with all the evaluation results demonstrated at textflint.io.

2020

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Simplify the Usage of Lexicon in Chinese NER
Ruotian Ma | Minlong Peng | Qi Zhang | Zhongyu Wei | Xuanjing Huang
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Recently, many works have tried to augment the performance of Chinese named entity recognition (NER) using word lexicons. As a representative, Lattice-LSTM has achieved new benchmark results on several public Chinese NER datasets. However, Lattice-LSTM has a complex model architecture. This limits its application in many industrial areas where real-time NER responses are needed. In this work, we propose a simple but effective method for incorporating the word lexicon into the character representations. This method avoids designing a complicated sequence modeling architecture, and for any neural NER model, it requires only subtle adjustment of the character representation layer to introduce the lexicon information. Experimental studies on four benchmark Chinese NER datasets show that our method achieves an inference speed up to 6.15 times faster than those of state-of-the-art methods, along with a better performance. The experimental results also show that the proposed method can be easily incorporated with pre-trained models like BERT.

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Weighed Domain-Invariant Representation Learning for Cross-domain Sentiment Analysis
Minlong Peng | Qi Zhang
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Cross-domain sentiment analysis is currently a hot topic in both the research and industrial areas. One of the most popular framework for the task is domain-invariant representation learning (DIRL), which aims to learn a distribution-invariant feature representation across domains. However, in this work, we find out that applying DIRL may degrade domain adaptation performance when the label distribution P(Y) changes across domains. To address this problem, we propose a modification to DIRL, obtaining a novel weighted domain-invariant representation learning (WDIRL) framework. We show that it is easy to transfer existing models of the DIRL framework to the WDIRL framework. Empirical studies on extensive cross-domain sentiment analysis tasks verified our statements and showed the effectiveness of our proposed solution.

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Keep it Consistent: Topic-Aware Storytelling from an Image Stream via Iterative Multi-agent Communication
Ruize Wang | Zhongyu Wei | Ying Cheng | Piji Li | Haijun Shan | Ji Zhang | Qi Zhang | Xuanjing Huang
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Visual storytelling aims to generate a narrative paragraph from a sequence of images automatically. Existing approaches construct text description independently for each image and roughly concatenate them as a story, which leads to the problem of generating semantically incoherent content. In this paper, we propose a new way for visual storytelling by introducing a topic description task to detect the global semantic context of an image stream. A story is then constructed with the guidance of the topic description. In order to combine the two generation tasks, we propose a multi-agent communication framework that regards the topic description generator and the story generator as two agents and learn them simultaneously via iterative updating mechanism. We validate our approach on VIST dataset, where quantitative results, ablations, and human evaluation demonstrate our method’s good ability in generating stories with higher quality compared to state-of-the-art methods.

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Modeling Evolution of Message Interaction for Rumor Resolution
Lei Chen | Zhongyu Wei | Jing Li | Baohua Zhou | Qi Zhang | Xuanjing Huang
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Previous work for rumor resolution concentrates on exploiting time-series characteristics or modeling topology structure separately. However, how local interactive pattern affects global information assemblage has not been explored. In this paper, we attempt to address the problem by learning evolution of message interaction. We model confrontation and reciprocity between message pairs via discrete variational autoencoders which effectively reflects the diversified opinion interactivity. Moreover, we capture the variation of message interaction using a hierarchical framework to better integrate information flow of a rumor cascade. Experiments on PHEME dataset demonstrate our proposed model achieves higher accuracy than existing methods.

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Uncertainty-Aware Label Refinement for Sequence Labeling
Tao Gui | Jiacheng Ye | Qi Zhang | Zhengyan Li | Zichu Fei | Yeyun Gong | Xuanjing Huang
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Conditional random fields (CRF) for label decoding has become ubiquitous in sequence labeling tasks. However, the local label dependencies and inefficient Viterbi decoding have always been a problem to be solved. In this work, we introduce a novel two-stage label decoding framework to model long-term label dependencies, while being much more computationally efficient. A base model first predicts draft labels, and then a novel two-stream self-attention model makes refinements on these draft predictions based on long-range label dependencies, which can achieve parallel decoding for a faster prediction. In addition, in order to mitigate the side effects of incorrect draft labels, Bayesian neural networks are used to indicate the labels with a high probability of being wrong, which can greatly assist in preventing error propagation. The experimental results on three sequence labeling benchmarks demonstrated that the proposed method not only outperformed the CRF-based methods but also greatly accelerated the inference process.

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Tasty Burgers, Soggy Fries: Probing Aspect Robustness in Aspect-Based Sentiment Analysis
Xiaoyu Xing | Zhijing Jin | Di Jin | Bingning Wang | Qi Zhang | Xuanjing Huang
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Aspect-based sentiment analysis (ABSA) aims to predict the sentiment towards a specific aspect in the text. However, existing ABSA test sets cannot be used to probe whether a model can distinguish the sentiment of the target aspect from the non-target aspects. To solve this problem, we develop a simple but effective approach to enrich ABSA test sets. Specifically, we generate new examples to disentangle the confounding sentiments of the non-target aspects from the target aspect’s sentiment. Based on the SemEval 2014 dataset, we construct the Aspect Robustness Test Set (ARTS) as a comprehensive probe of the aspect robustness of ABSA models. Over 92% data of ARTS show high fluency and desired sentiment on all aspects by human evaluation. Using ARTS, we analyze the robustness of nine ABSA models, and observe, surprisingly, that their accuracy drops by up to 69.73%. We explore several ways to improve aspect robustness, and find that adversarial training can improve models’ performance on ARTS by up to 32.85%. Our code and new test set are available at https://github.com/zhijing-jin/ARTS_TestSet

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RethinkCWS: Is Chinese Word Segmentation a Solved Task?
Jinlan Fu | Pengfei Liu | Qi Zhang | Xuanjing Huang
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

The performance of the Chinese Word Segmentation (CWS) systems has gradually reached a plateau with the rapid development of deep neural networks, especially the successful use of large pre-trained models. In this paper, we take stock of what we have achieved and rethink what’s left in the CWS task. Methodologically, we propose a fine-grained evaluation for existing CWS systems, which not only allows us to diagnose the strengths and weaknesses of existing models (under the in-dataset setting), but enables us to quantify the discrepancy between different criterion and alleviate the negative transfer problem when doing multi-criteria learning. Strategically, despite not aiming to propose a novel model in this paper, our comprehensive experiments on eight models and seven datasets, as well as thorough analysis, could search for some promising direction for future research. We make all codes publicly available and release an interface that can quickly evaluate and diagnose user’s models: https://github.com/neulab/InterpretEval

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A Knowledge-Aware Sequence-to-Tree Network for Math Word Problem Solving
Qinzhuo Wu | Qi Zhang | Jinlan Fu | Xuanjing Huang
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

With the advancements in natural language processing tasks, math word problem solving has received increasing attention. Previous methods have achieved promising results but ignore background common-sense knowledge not directly provided by the problem. In addition, during generation, they focus on local features while neglecting global information. To incorporate external knowledge and global expression information, we propose a novel knowledge-aware sequence-to-tree (KA-S2T) network in which the entities in the problem sequences and their categories are modeled as an entity graph. Based on this entity graph, a graph attention network is used to capture knowledge-aware problem representations. Further, we use a tree-structured decoder with a state aggregation mechanism to capture the long-distance dependency and global expression information. Experimental results on the Math23K dataset revealed that the KA-S2T model can achieve better performance than previously reported best results.

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PathQG: Neural Question Generation from Facts
Siyuan Wang | Zhongyu Wei | Zhihao Fan | Zengfeng Huang | Weijian Sun | Qi Zhang | Xuanjing Huang
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Existing research for question generation encodes the input text as a sequence of tokens without explicitly modeling fact information. These models tend to generate irrelevant and uninformative questions. In this paper, we explore to incorporate facts in the text for question generation in a comprehensive way. We present a novel task of question generation given a query path in the knowledge graph constructed from the input text. We divide the task into two steps, namely, query representation learning and query-based question generation. We formulate query representation learning as a sequence labeling problem for identifying the involved facts to form a query and employ an RNN-based generator for question generation. We first train the two modules jointly in an end-to-end fashion, and further enforce the interaction between these two modules in a variational framework. We construct the experimental datasets on top of SQuAD and results show that our model outperforms other state-of-the-art approaches, and the performance margin is larger when target questions are complex. Human evaluation also proves that our model is able to generate relevant and informative questions.

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Toward Recognizing More Entity Types in NER: An Efficient Implementation using Only Entity Lexicons
Minlong Peng | Ruotian Ma | Qi Zhang | Lujun Zhao | Mengxi Wei | Changlong Sun | Xuanjing Huang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

In this work, we explore the way to quickly adjust an existing named entity recognition (NER) system to make it capable of recognizing entity types not defined in the system. As an illustrative example, consider the case that a NER system has been built to recognize person and organization names, and now it requires to additionally recognize job titles. Such a situation is common in the industrial areas, where the entity types required to recognize vary a lot in different products and keep changing. To avoid laborious data labeling and achieve fast adaptation, we propose to adjust the existing NER system using the previously labeled data and entity lexicons of the newly introduced entity types. We formulate such a task as a partially supervised learning problem and accordingly propose an effective algorithm to solve the problem. Comprehensive experimental studies on several public NER datasets validate the effectiveness of our method.

2019

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A Lexicon-Based Graph Neural Network for Chinese NER
Tao Gui | Yicheng Zou | Qi Zhang | Minlong Peng | Jinlan Fu | Zhongyu Wei | Xuanjing Huang
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Recurrent neural networks (RNN) used for Chinese named entity recognition (NER) that sequentially track character and word information have achieved great success. However, the characteristic of chain structure and the lack of global semantics determine that RNN-based models are vulnerable to word ambiguities. In this work, we try to alleviate this problem by introducing a lexicon-based graph neural network with global semantics, in which lexicon knowledge is used to connect characters to capture the local composition, while a global relay node can capture global sentence semantics and long-range dependency. Based on the multiple graph-based interactions among characters, potential words, and the whole-sentence semantics, word ambiguities can be effectively tackled. Experiments on four NER datasets show that the proposed model achieves significant improvements against other baseline models.

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Asynchronous Deep Interaction Network for Natural Language Inference
Di Liang | Fubao Zhang | Qi Zhang | Xuanjing Huang
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Natural language inference aims to predict whether a premise sentence can infer another hypothesis sentence. Existing methods typically have framed the reasoning problem as a semantic matching task. The both sentences are encoded and interacted symmetrically and in parallel. However, in the process of reasoning, the role of the two sentences is obviously different, and the sentence pairs for NLI are asymmetrical corpora. In this paper, we propose an asynchronous deep interaction network (ADIN) to complete the task. ADIN is a neural network structure stacked with multiple inference sub-layers, and each sub-layer consists of two local inference modules in an asymmetrical manner. Different from previous methods, this model deconstructs the reasoning process and implements the asynchronous and multi-step reasoning. Experiment results show that ADIN achieves competitive performance and outperforms strong baselines on three popular benchmarks: SNLI, MultiNLI, and SciTail.

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A Multi-Task Learning Framework for Extracting Bacteria Biotope Information
Qi Zhang | Chao Liu | Ying Chi | Xuansong Xie | Xiansheng Hua
Proceedings of The 5th Workshop on BioNLP Open Shared Tasks

This paper presents a novel transfer multi-task learning method for Bacteria Biotope rel+ner task at BioNLP-OST 2019. To alleviate the data deficiency problem in domain-specific information extraction, we use BERT(Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers) and pre-train it using mask language models and next sentence prediction on both general corpus and medical corpus like PubMed. In fine-tuning stage, we fine-tune the relation extraction layer and mention recognition layer designed by us on the top of BERT to extract mentions and relations simultaneously. The evaluation results show that our method achieves the best performance on all metrics (including slot error rate, precision and recall) in the Bacteria Biotope rel+ner subtask.

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Distantly Supervised Named Entity Recognition using Positive-Unlabeled Learning
Minlong Peng | Xiaoyu Xing | Qi Zhang | Jinlan Fu | Xuanjing Huang
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

In this work, we explore the way to perform named entity recognition (NER) using only unlabeled data and named entity dictionaries. To this end, we formulate the task as a positive-unlabeled (PU) learning problem and accordingly propose a novel PU learning algorithm to perform the task. We prove that the proposed algorithm can unbiasedly and consistently estimate the task loss as if there is fully labeled data. A key feature of the proposed method is that it does not require the dictionaries to label every entity within a sentence, and it even does not require the dictionaries to label all of the words constituting an entity. This greatly reduces the requirement on the quality of the dictionaries and makes our method generalize well with quite simple dictionaries. Empirical studies on four public NER datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed method. We have published the source code at https://github.com/v-mipeng/LexiconNER.

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Posterior-regularized REINFORCE for Instance Selection in Distant Supervision
Qi Zhang | Siliang Tang | Xiang Ren | Fei Wu | Shiliang Pu | Yueting Zhuang
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long and Short Papers)

This paper provides a new way to improve the efficiency of the REINFORCE training process. We apply it to the task of instance selection in distant supervision. Modeling the instance selection in one bag as a sequential decision process, a reinforcement learning agent is trained to determine whether an instance is valuable or not and construct a new bag with less noisy instances. However unbiased methods, such as REINFORCE, could usually take much time to train. This paper adopts posterior regularization (PR) to integrate some domain-specific rules in instance selection using REINFORCE. As the experiment results show, this method remarkably improves the performance of the relation classifier trained on cleaned distant supervision dataset as well as the efficiency of the REINFORCE training.

2018

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Transferring from Formal Newswire Domain with Hypernet for Twitter POS Tagging
Tao Gui | Qi Zhang | Jingjing Gong | Minlong Peng | Di Liang | Keyu Ding | Xuanjing Huang
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Part-of-Speech (POS) tagging for Twitter has received considerable attention in recent years. Because most POS tagging methods are based on supervised models, they usually require a large amount of labeled data for training. However, the existing labeled datasets for Twitter are much smaller than those for newswire text. Hence, to help POS tagging for Twitter, most domain adaptation methods try to leverage newswire datasets by learning the shared features between the two domains. However, from a linguistic perspective, Twitter users not only tend to mimic the formal expressions of traditional media, like news, but they also appear to be developing linguistically informal styles. Therefore, POS tagging for the formal Twitter context can be learned together with the newswire dataset, while POS tagging for the informal Twitter context should be learned separately. To achieve this task, in this work, we propose a hypernetwork-based method to generate different parameters to separately model contexts with different expression styles. Experimental results on three different datasets show that our approach achieves better performance than state-of-the-art methods in most cases.

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Cross-Domain Sentiment Classification with Target Domain Specific Information
Minlong Peng | Qi Zhang | Yu-gang Jiang | Xuanjing Huang
Proceedings of the 56th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

The task of adopting a model with good performance to a target domain that is different from the source domain used for training has received considerable attention in sentiment analysis. Most existing approaches mainly focus on learning representations that are domain-invariant in both the source and target domains. Few of them pay attention to domain-specific information, which should also be informative. In this work, we propose a method to simultaneously extract domain specific and invariant representations and train a classifier on each of the representation, respectively. And we introduce a few target domain labeled data for learning domain-specific information. To effectively utilize the target domain labeled data, we train the domain invariant representation based classifier with both the source and target domain labeled data and train the domain-specific representation based classifier with only the target domain labeled data. These two classifiers then boost each other in a co-training style. Extensive sentiment analysis experiments demonstrated that the proposed method could achieve better performance than state-of-the-art methods.

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A Lexicon-Based Supervised Attention Model for Neural Sentiment Analysis
Yicheng Zou | Tao Gui | Qi Zhang | Xuanjing Huang
Proceedings of the 27th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Attention mechanisms have been leveraged for sentiment classification tasks because not all words have the same importance. However, most existing attention models did not take full advantage of sentiment lexicons, which provide rich sentiment information and play a critical role in sentiment analysis. To achieve the above target, in this work, we propose a novel lexicon-based supervised attention model (LBSA), which allows a recurrent neural network to focus on the sentiment content, thus generating sentiment-informative representations. Compared with general attention models, our model has better interpretability and less noise. Experimental results on three large-scale sentiment classification datasets showed that the proposed method outperforms previous methods.

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Incorporating Argument-Level Interactions for Persuasion Comments Evaluation using Co-attention Model
Lu Ji | Zhongyu Wei | Xiangkun Hu | Yang Liu | Qi Zhang | Xuanjing Huang
Proceedings of the 27th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

In this paper, we investigate the issue of persuasiveness evaluation for argumentative comments. Most of the existing research explores different text features of reply comments on word level and ignores interactions between participants. In general, viewpoints are usually expressed by multiple arguments and exchanged on argument level. To better model the process of dialogical argumentation, we propose a novel co-attention mechanism based neural network to capture the interactions between participants on argument level. Experimental results on a publicly available dataset show that the proposed model significantly outperforms some state-of-the-art methods for persuasiveness evaluation. Further analysis reveals that attention weights computed in our model are able to extract interactive argument pairs from the original post and the reply.

2017

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Part-of-Speech Tagging for Twitter with Adversarial Neural Networks
Tao Gui | Qi Zhang | Haoran Huang | Minlong Peng | Xuanjing Huang
Proceedings of the 2017 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

In this work, we study the problem of part-of-speech tagging for Tweets. In contrast to newswire articles, Tweets are usually informal and contain numerous out-of-vocabulary words. Moreover, there is a lack of large scale labeled datasets for this domain. To tackle these challenges, we propose a novel neural network to make use of out-of-domain labeled data, unlabeled in-domain data, and labeled in-domain data. Inspired by adversarial neural networks, the proposed method tries to learn common features through adversarial discriminator. In addition, we hypothesize that domain-specific features of target domain should be preserved in some degree. Hence, the proposed method adopts a sequence-to-sequence autoencoder to perform this task. Experimental results on three different datasets show that our method achieves better performance than state-of-the-art methods.

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Large-scale Opinion Relation Extraction with Distantly Supervised Neural Network
Changzhi Sun | Yuanbin Wu | Man Lan | Shiliang Sun | Qi Zhang
Proceedings of the 15th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Volume 1, Long Papers

We investigate the task of open domain opinion relation extraction. Different from works on manually labeled corpus, we propose an efficient distantly supervised framework based on pattern matching and neural network classifiers. The patterns are designed to automatically generate training data, and the deep learning model is design to capture various lexical and syntactic features. The result algorithm is fast and scalable on large-scale corpus. We test the system on the Amazon online review dataset. The result shows that our model is able to achieve promising performances without any human annotations.

2016

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Generating Abbreviations for Chinese Named Entities Using Recurrent Neural Network with Dynamic Dictionary
Qi Zhang | Jin Qian | Ya Guo | Yaqian Zhou | Xuanjing Huang
Proceedings of the 2016 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

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Keyphrase Extraction Using Deep Recurrent Neural Networks on Twitter
Qi Zhang | Yang Wang | Yeyun Gong | Xuanjing Huang
Proceedings of the 2016 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

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Hashtag Recommendation Using End-To-End Memory Networks with Hierarchical Attention
Haoran Huang | Qi Zhang | Yeyun Gong | Xuanjing Huang
Proceedings of COLING 2016, the 26th International Conference on Computational Linguistics: Technical Papers

On microblogging services, people usually use hashtags to mark microblogs, which have a specific theme or content, making them easier for users to find. Hence, how to automatically recommend hashtags for microblogs has received much attention in recent years. Previous deep neural network-based hashtag recommendation approaches converted the task into a multi-class classification problem. However, most of these methods only took the microblog itself into consideration. Motivated by the intuition that the history of users should impact the recommendation procedure, in this work, we extend end-to-end memory networks to perform this task. We incorporate the histories of users into the external memory and introduce a hierarchical attention mechanism to select more appropriate histories. To train and evaluate the proposed method, we also construct a dataset based on microblogs collected from Twitter. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed methods can significantly outperform state-of-the-art methods. By incorporating the hierarchical attention mechanism, the relative improvement in the proposed method over the state-of-the-art method is around 67.9% in the F1-score.

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Implicit Discourse Relation Detection via a Deep Architecture with Gated Relevance Network
Jifan Chen | Qi Zhang | Pengfei Liu | Xipeng Qiu | Xuanjing Huang
Proceedings of the 54th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

2015

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Hashtag Recommendation Using Dirichlet Process Mixture Models Incorporating Types of Hashtags
Yeyun Gong | Qi Zhang | Xuanjing Huang
Proceedings of the 2015 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

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Writing to Read: the Case of Chinese
Qi Zhang | Ronan Reilly
Proceedings of the 29th Pacific Asia Conference on Language, Information and Computation

2014

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Time-aware Personalized Hashtag Recommendation on Social Media
Qi Zhang | Yeyun Gong | Xuyang Sun | Xuanjing Huang
Proceedings of COLING 2014, the 25th International Conference on Computational Linguistics: Technical Papers

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A Generative Model for Identifying Target Companies of Microblogs
Yeyun Gong | Yaqian Zhou | Ya Guo | Qi Zhang | Xuanjing Huang
Proceedings of COLING 2014, the 25th International Conference on Computational Linguistics: Technical Papers

2013

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Detecting Spammers in Community Question Answering
Zhuoye Ding | Yeyun Gong | Yaqian Zhou | Qi Zhang | Xuanjing Huang
Proceedings of the Sixth International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing

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Chinese Named Entity Abbreviation Generation Using First-Order Logic
Huan Chen | Qi Zhang | Jin Qian | Xuanjing Huang
Proceedings of the Sixth International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing

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Understanding the Semantic Intent of Natural Language Query
Juan Xu | Qi Zhang | Xuanjing Huang
Proceedings of the Sixth International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing

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Discourse Level Explanatory Relation Extraction from Product Reviews Using First-Order Logic
Qi Zhang | Jin Qian | Huan Chen | Jihua Kang | Xuanjing Huang
Proceedings of the 2013 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

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FudanNLP: A Toolkit for Chinese Natural Language Processing
Xipeng Qiu | Qi Zhang | Xuanjing Huang
Proceedings of the 51st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: System Demonstrations

2012

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Automatic Hashtag Recommendation for Microblogs using Topic-Specific Translation Model
Zhuoye Ding | Qi Zhang | Xuanjing Huang
Proceedings of COLING 2012: Posters

2011

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Keyphrase Extraction from Online News Using Binary Integer Programming
Zhuoye Ding | Qi Zhang | Xuanjing Huang
Proceedings of 5th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing

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Efficient Near-Duplicate Detection for Q&A Forum
Yan Wu | Qi Zhang | Xuanjing Huang
Proceedings of 5th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing

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Structural Opinion Mining for Graph-based Sentiment Representation
Yuanbin Wu | Qi Zhang | Xuanjing Huang | Lide Wu
Proceedings of the 2011 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

2010

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2D Trie for Fast Parsing
Xian Qian | Qi Zhang | Xuanjing Huang | Lide Wu
Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Computational Linguistics (Coling 2010)

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Joint Training and Decoding Using Virtual Nodes for Cascaded Segmentation and Tagging Tasks
Xian Qian | Qi Zhang | Yaqian Zhou | Xuanjing Huang | Lide Wu
Proceedings of the 2010 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

2009

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Phrase Dependency Parsing for Opinion Mining
Yuanbin Wu | Qi Zhang | Xuanjing Huang | Lide Wu
Proceedings of the 2009 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

2006

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A Progressive Feature Selection Algorithm for Ultra Large Feature Spaces
Qi Zhang | Fuliang Weng | Zhe Feng
Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Computational Linguistics and 44th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

2005

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Exploring Features for Identifying Edited Regions in Disfluent Sentences
Qi Zhang | Fuliang Weng
Proceedings of the Ninth International Workshop on Parsing Technology

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A Flexible Conversational Dialog System for MP3 Player
Fuliang Weng | Lawrence Cavedon | Badri Raghunathan | Danilo Mirkovic | Ben Bei | Heather Pon-Barry | Harry Bratt | Hua Cheng | Hauke Schmidt | Rohit Mishra | Brian Lathrop | Qi Zhang | Tobias Scheideck | Kui Xu | Tess Hand-Bender | Stanley Peters | Liz Shriberg | Carsten Bergmann
Proceedings of HLT/EMNLP 2005 Interactive Demonstrations

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