Keyphrase extraction (KPE) automatically extracts phrases in a document that provide a concise summary of the core content, which benefits downstream information retrieval and NLP tasks. Previous state-of-the-art methods select candidate keyphrases based on the similarity between learned representations of the candidates and the document. They suffer performance degradation on long documents due to discrepancy between sequence lengths which causes mismatch between representations of keyphrase candidates and the document. In this work, we propose a novel unsupervised embedding-based KPE approach, Masked Document Embedding Rank (MDERank), to address this problem by leveraging a mask strategy and ranking candidates by the similarity between embeddings of the source document and the masked document. We further develop a KPE-oriented BERT (KPEBERT) model by proposing a novel self-supervised contrastive learning method, which is more compatible to MDERank than vanilla BERT. Comprehensive evaluations on six KPE benchmarks demonstrate that the proposed MDERank outperforms state-of-the-art unsupervised KPE approach by average 1.80 F1@15 improvement. MDERank further benefits from KPEBERT and overall achieves average 3.53 F1@15 improvement over SIFRank.
Adversarial attacks against natural language processing systems, which perform seemingly innocuous modifications to inputs, can induce arbitrary mistakes to the target models. Though raised great concerns, such adversarial attacks can be leveraged to estimate the robustness of NLP models. Compared with the adversarial example generation in continuous data domain (e.g., image), generating adversarial text that preserves the original meaning is challenging since the text space is discrete and non-differentiable. To handle these challenges, we propose a target-controllable adversarial attack framework T3, which is applicable to a range of NLP tasks. In particular, we propose a tree-based autoencoder to embed the discrete text data into a continuous representation space, upon which we optimize the adversarial perturbation. A novel tree-based decoder is then applied to regularize the syntactic correctness of the generated text and manipulate it on either sentence (T3(Sent)) or word (T3(Word)) level. We consider two most representative NLP tasks: sentiment analysis and question answering (QA). Extensive experimental results and human studies show that T3 generated adversarial texts can successfully manipulate the NLP models to output the targeted incorrect answer without misleading the human. Moreover, we show that the generated adversarial texts have high transferability which enables the black-box attacks in practice. Our work sheds light on an effective and general way to examine the robustness of NLP models. Our code is publicly available at https://github.com/AI-secure/T3/.
Pooling is an essential component of a wide variety of sentence representation and embedding models. This paper explores generalized pooling methods to enhance sentence embedding. We propose vector-based multi-head attention that includes the widely used max pooling, mean pooling, and scalar self-attention as special cases. The model benefits from properly designed penalization terms to reduce redundancy in multi-head attention. We evaluate the proposed model on three different tasks: natural language inference (NLI), author profiling, and sentiment classification. The experiments show that the proposed model achieves significant improvement over strong sentence-encoding-based methods, resulting in state-of-the-art performances on four datasets. The proposed approach can be easily implemented for more problems than we discuss in this paper.
Modeling natural language inference is a very challenging task. With the availability of large annotated data, it has recently become feasible to train complex models such as neural-network-based inference models, which have shown to achieve the state-of-the-art performance. Although there exist relatively large annotated data, can machines learn all knowledge needed to perform natural language inference (NLI) from these data? If not, how can neural-network-based NLI models benefit from external knowledge and how to build NLI models to leverage it? In this paper, we enrich the state-of-the-art neural natural language inference models with external knowledge. We demonstrate that the proposed models improve neural NLI models to achieve the state-of-the-art performance on the SNLI and MultiNLI datasets.
The RepEval 2017 Shared Task aims to evaluate natural language understanding models for sentence representation, in which a sentence is represented as a fixed-length vector with neural networks and the quality of the representation is tested with a natural language inference task. This paper describes our system (alpha) that is ranked among the top in the Shared Task, on both the in-domain test set (obtaining a 74.9% accuracy) and on the cross-domain test set (also attaining a 74.9% accuracy), demonstrating that the model generalizes well to the cross-domain data. Our model is equipped with intra-sentence gated-attention composition which helps achieve a better performance. In addition to submitting our model to the Shared Task, we have also tested it on the Stanford Natural Language Inference (SNLI) dataset. We obtain an accuracy of 85.5%, which is the best reported result on SNLI when cross-sentence attention is not allowed, the same condition enforced in RepEval 2017.
Reasoning and inference are central to human and artificial intelligence. Modeling inference in human language is very challenging. With the availability of large annotated data (Bowman et al., 2015), it has recently become feasible to train neural network based inference models, which have shown to be very effective. In this paper, we present a new state-of-the-art result, achieving the accuracy of 88.6% on the Stanford Natural Language Inference Dataset. Unlike the previous top models that use very complicated network architectures, we first demonstrate that carefully designing sequential inference models based on chain LSTMs can outperform all previous models. Based on this, we further show that by explicitly considering recursive architectures in both local inference modeling and inference composition, we achieve additional improvement. Particularly, incorporating syntactic parsing information contributes to our best result—it further improves the performance even when added to the already very strong model.