Qian Hu


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Evaluating Large Language Models on Controlled Generation Tasks
Jiao Sun | Yufei Tian | Wangchunshu Zhou | Nan Xu | Qian Hu | Rahul Gupta | John Wieting | Nanyun Peng | Xuezhe Ma
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

While recent studies have looked into the abilities of large language models in various benchmark tasks, including question generation, reading comprehension, multilingual and etc, there have been few studies looking into the controllability of large language models on generation tasks. We present an extensive analysis of various benchmarks including a sentence planning benchmark with different granularities. After comparing large language models against state-of-the-start finetuned smaller models, we present a spectrum showing large language models falling behind, are comparable, or exceed the ability of smaller models. We conclude that *large language models struggle at meeting fine-grained hard constraints*.

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Log-FGAER: Logic-Guided Fine-Grained Address Entity Recognition from Multi-Turn Spoken Dialogue
Xue Han | Yitong Wang | Qian Hu | Pengwei Hu | Chao Deng | Junlan Feng
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Fine-grained address entity recognition (FGAER) from multi-turn spoken dialogues is particularly challenging. The major reason lies in that a full address is often formed through a conversation process. Different parts of an address are distributed through multiple turns of a dialogue with spoken noises. It is nontrivial to extract by turn and combine them. This challenge has not been well emphasized by main-stream entity extraction algorithms. To address this issue, we propose in this paper a logic-guided fine-grained address recognition method (Log-FGAER), where we formulate the address hierarchy relationship as the logic rule and softly apply it in a probabilistic manner to improve the accuracy of FGAER. In addition, we provide an ontology-based data augmentation methodology that employs ChatGPT to augment a spoken dialogue dataset with labeled address entities. Experiments are conducted using datasets generated by the proposed data augmentation technique and derived from real-world scenarios. The results of the experiment demonstrate the efficacy of our proposal.

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Faithful Model Evaluation for Model-Based Metrics
Qian Hu | Palash Goyal | Rahul Gupta
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Statistical significance testing is used in natural language processing (NLP) to determine whether the results of a study or experiment are likely to be due to chance or if they reflect a genuine relationship. A key step in significance testing is the estimation of confidence interval which is a function of sample variance. Sample variance calculation is straightforward when evaluating against ground truth. However, in many cases, a metric model is often used for evaluation. For example, to compare toxicity of two large language models, a toxicity classifier is used for evaluation. Existing works usually do not consider the variance change due to metric model errors, which can lead to wrong conclusions. In this work, we establish the mathematical foundation of significance testing for model-based metrics. With experiments on public benchmark datasets and a production system, we show that considering metric model errors to calculate sample variances for model-based metrics changes the conclusions in certain experiments.

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Resolving Ambiguities in Text-to-Image Generative Models
Ninareh Mehrabi | Palash Goyal | Apurv Verma | Jwala Dhamala | Varun Kumar | Qian Hu | Kai-Wei Chang | Richard Zemel | Aram Galstyan | Rahul Gupta
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Natural language often contains ambiguities that can lead to misinterpretation and miscommunication. While humans can handle ambiguities effectively by asking clarifying questions and/or relying on contextual cues and common-sense knowledge, resolving ambiguities can be notoriously hard for machines. In this work, we study ambiguities that arise in text-to-image generative models. We curate the Text-to-image Ambiguity Benchmark (TAB) dataset to study different types of ambiguities in text-to-image generative models. We then propose the Text-to-ImagE Disambiguation (TIED) framework to disambiguate the prompts given to the text-to-image generative models by soliciting clarifications from the end user. Through automatic and human evaluations, we show the effectiveness of our framework in generating more faithful images aligned with end user intention in the presence of ambiguities.


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Collaborative Data Relabeling for Robust and Diverse Voice Apps Recommendation in Intelligent Personal Assistants
Qian Hu | Thahir Mohamed | Wei Xiao | Zheng Gao | Xibin Gao | Radhika Arava | Xiyao Ma | Mohamed AbdelHady
Proceedings of the 3rd Workshop on Natural Language Processing for Conversational AI

Intelligent personal assistants (IPAs) such as Amazon Alexa, Google Assistant and Apple Siri extend their built-in capabilities by supporting voice apps developed by third-party developers. Sometimes the smart assistant is not able to successfully respond to user voice commands (aka utterances). There are many reasons including automatic speech recognition (ASR) error, natural language understanding (NLU) error, routing utterances to an irrelevant voice app or simply that the user is asking for a capability that is not supported yet. The failure to handle a voice command leads to customer frustration. In this paper, we introduce a fallback skill recommendation system to suggest a voice app to a customer for an unhandled voice command. One of the prominent challenges of developing a skill recommender system for IPAs is partial observation. To solve the partial observation problem, we propose collaborative data relabeling (CDR) method. In addition, CDR also improves the diversity of the recommended skills. We evaluate the proposed method both offline and online. The offline evaluation results show that the proposed system outperforms the baselines. The online A/B testing results show significant gain of customer experience metrics.


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Audio Hot Spotting and Retrieval using Multiple Features
Qian Hu | Fred Goodman | Stanley Boykin | Randy Fish | Warren Greiff
Proceedings of the Workshop on Interdisciplinary Approaches to Speech Indexing and Retrieval at HLT-NAACL 2004