Qian Li


2023

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Dual-Gated Fusion with Prefix-Tuning for Multi-Modal Relation Extraction
Qian Li | Shu Guo | Cheng Ji | Xutan Peng | Shiyao Cui | Jianxin Li | Lihong Wang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Multi-Modal Relation Extraction (MMRE) aims at identifying the relation between two entities in texts that contain visual clues. Rich visual content is valuable for the MMRE task, but existing works cannot well model finer associations among different modalities, failing to capture the truly helpful visual information and thus limiting relation extraction performance. In this paper, we propose a novel MMRE framework to better capture the deeper correlations of text, entity pair, and image/objects, so as to mine more helpful information for the task, termed as DGF-PT. We first propose a prompt-based autoregressive encoder, which builds the associations of intra-modal and inter-modal features related to the task, respectively by entity-oriented and object-oriented prefixes. To better integrate helpful visual information, we design a dual-gated fusion module to distinguish the importance of image/objects and further enrich text representations. In addition, a generative decoder is introduced with entity type restriction on relations, better filtering out candidates. Extensive experiments conducted on the benchmark dataset show that our approach achieves excellent performance compared to strong competitors, even in the few-shot situation.

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Contrastive Learning with Generated Representations for Inductive Knowledge Graph Embedding
Qian Li | Shafiq Joty | Daling Wang | Shi Feng | Yifei Zhang | Chengwei Qin
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

With the evolution of Knowledge Graphs (KGs), new entities emerge which are not seen before. Representation learning of KGs in such an inductive setting aims to capture and transfer the structural patterns from existing entities to new entities. However, the performance of existing methods in inductive KGs are limited by sparsity and implicit transfer. In this paper, we propose VMCL, a Contrastive Learning (CL) framework with graph guided Variational autoencoder on Meta-KGs in the inductive setting. We first propose representation generation to capture the encoded and generated representations of entities, where the generated variations can densify representations with complementary features. Then, we design two CL objectives that work across entities and meta-KGs to simulate the transfer mode. With extensive experiments we demonstrate that our proposed VMCL can significantly outperform previous state-of-the-art baselines.

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Multi-Modal Knowledge Graph Transformer Framework for Multi-Modal Entity Alignment
Qian Li | Cheng Ji | Shu Guo | Zhaoji Liang | Lihong Wang | Jianxin Li
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Multi-Modal Entity Alignment (MMEA) is a critical task that aims to identify equivalent entity pairs across multi-modal knowledge graphs (MMKGs). However, this task faces challenges due to the presence of different types of information, including neighboring entities, multi-modal attributes, and entity types. Directly incorporating the above information (e.g., concatenation or attention) can lead to an unaligned information space. To address these challenges, we propose a novel MMEA transformer, called Meaformer, that hierarchically introduces neighbor features, multi-modal attributes, and entity types to enhance the alignment task. Taking advantage of the transformer’s ability to better integrate multiple information, we design a hierarchical modifiable self-attention block in a transformer encoder to preserve the unique semantics of different information. Furthermore, we design two entity-type prefix injection methods to redintegrate entity-type information using type prefixes, which help to restrict the global information of entities not present in the MMKGs.

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Learning to Initialize: Can Meta Learning Improve Cross-task Generalization in Prompt Tuning?
Chengwei Qin | Shafiq Joty | Qian Li | Ruochen Zhao
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Prompt tuning (PT) which only tunes the embeddings of an additional sequence of tokens per task, keeping the pre-trained language model (PLM) frozen, has shown remarkable performance in few-shot learning. Despite this, PT has been shown to rely heavily on good initialization of the prompt embeddings. In this work, we study meta prompt tuning (MPT) to systematically explore how meta-learning can help improve (if it can) cross-task generalization in PT through learning to initialize the prompt embeddings from other relevant tasks. We empirically analyze a representative set of meta learning algorithms in a wide range of adaptation settings with different source/target task configurations on a large set of few-shot tasks. With extensive experiments and analysis, we demonstrate the effectiveness of MPT. We find the improvement to be significant particularly on classification tasks. For other kinds of tasks such as question answering, we observe that while MPT can outperform PT in most cases, it does not always outperform multi-task learning. We further provide an in-depth analysis from the perspective of task similarity.

2022

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Alleviating Sparsity of Open Knowledge Graphs with Ternary Contrastive Learning
Qian Li | Shafiq Joty | Daling Wang | Shi Feng | Yifei Zhang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

Sparsity of formal knowledge and roughness of non-ontological construction make sparsity problem particularly prominent in Open Knowledge Graphs (OpenKGs). Due to sparse links, learning effective representation for few-shot entities becomes difficult. We hypothesize that by introducing negative samples, a contrastive learning (CL) formulation could be beneficial in such scenarios. However, existing CL methods model KG triplets as binary objects of entities ignoring the relation-guided ternary propagation patterns and they are too generic, i.e., they ignore zero-shot, few-shot and synonymity problems that appear in OpenKGs. To address this, we propose TernaryCL, a CL framework based on ternary propagation patterns among head, relation and tail. TernaryCL designs Contrastive Entity and Contrastive Relation to mine ternary discriminative features with both negative entities and relations, introduces Contrastive Self to help zero- and few-shot entities learn discriminative features, Contrastive Synonym to model synonymous entities, and Contrastive Fusion to aggregate graph features from multiple paths. Extensive experiments on benchmarks demonstrate the superiority of TernaryCL over state-of-the-art models.

2021

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Harnessing Privileged Information for Hyperbole Detection
Rhys Biddle | Maciek Rybinski | Qian Li | Cecile Paris | Guandong Xu
Proceedings of the 19th Annual Workshop of the Australasian Language Technology Association

The detection of hyperbole is an important stepping stone to understanding the intentions of a hyperbolic utterance. We propose a model that combines pre-trained language models with privileged information for the task of hyperbole detection. We also introduce a suite of behavioural tests to probe the capabilities of hyperbole detection models across a range of hyperbole types. Our experiments show that our model improves upon baseline models on an existing hyperbole detection dataset. Probing experiments combined with analysis using local linear approximations (LIME) show that our model excels at detecting one particular type of hyperbole. Further, we discover that our experiments highlight annotation artifacts introduced through the process of literal paraphrasing of hyperbole. These annotation artifacts are likely to be a roadblock to further improvements in hyperbole detection.

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CasEE: A Joint Learning Framework with Cascade Decoding for Overlapping Event Extraction
Jiawei Sheng | Shu Guo | Bowen Yu | Qian Li | Yiming Hei | Lihong Wang | Tingwen Liu | Hongbo Xu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL-IJCNLP 2021

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Generation and Extraction Combined Dialogue State Tracking with Hierarchical Ontology Integration
Xinmeng Li | Qian Li | Wansen Wu | Quanjun Yin
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Recently, the focus of dialogue state tracking has expanded from single domain to multiple domains. The task is characterized by the shared slots between domains. As the scenario gets more complex, the out-of-vocabulary problem also becomes severer. Current models are not satisfactory for solving the challenges of ontology integration between domains and out-of-vocabulary problems. To address the problem, we explore the hierarchical semantic of ontology and enhance the interrelation between slots with masked hierarchical attention. In state value decoding stage, we solve the out-of-vocabulary problem by combining generation method and extraction method together. We evaluate the performance of our model on two representative datasets, MultiWOZ in English and CrossWOZ in Chinese. The results show that our model yields a significant performance gain over current state-of-the-art state tracking model and it is more robust to out-of-vocabulary problem compared with other methods.

2019

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Are You for Real? Detecting Identity Fraud via Dialogue Interactions
Weikang Wang | Jiajun Zhang | Qian Li | Chengqing Zong | Zhifei Li
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Identity fraud detection is of great importance in many real-world scenarios such as the financial industry. However, few studies addressed this problem before. In this paper, we focus on identity fraud detection in loan applications and propose to solve this problem with a novel interactive dialogue system which consists of two modules. One is the knowledge graph (KG) constructor organizing the personal information for each loan applicant. The other is structured dialogue management that can dynamically generate a series of questions based on the personal KG to ask the applicants and determine their identity states. We also present a heuristic user simulator based on problem analysis to evaluate our method. Experiments have shown that the trainable dialogue system can effectively detect fraudsters, and achieve higher recognition accuracy compared with rule-based systems. Furthermore, our learned dialogue strategies are interpretable and flexible, which can help promote real-world applications.

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Answer-Supervised Question Reformulation for Enhancing Conversational Machine Comprehension
Qian Li | Hui Su | Cheng Niu | Daling Wang | Zekang Li | Shi Feng | Yifei Zhang
Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Machine Reading for Question Answering

In conversational machine comprehension, it has become one of the research hotspots integrating conversational history information through question reformulation for obtaining better answers. However, the existing question reformulation models are trained only using supervised question labels annotated by annotators without considering any feedback information from answers. In this paper, we propose a novel Answer-Supervised Question Reformulation (ASQR) model for enhancing conversational machine comprehension with reinforcement learning technology. ASQR utilizes a pointer-copy-based question reformulation model as an agent, takes an action to predict the next word, and observes a reward for the whole sentence state after generating the end-of-sequence token. The experimental results on QuAC dataset prove that our ASQR model is more effective in conversational machine comprehension. Moreover, pretraining is essential in reinforcement learning models, so we provide a high-quality annotated dataset for question reformulation by sampling a part of QuAC dataset.

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Incremental Transformer with Deliberation Decoder for Document Grounded Conversations
Zekang Li | Cheng Niu | Fandong Meng | Yang Feng | Qian Li | Jie Zhou
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Document Grounded Conversations is a task to generate dialogue responses when chatting about the content of a given document. Obviously, document knowledge plays a critical role in Document Grounded Conversations, while existing dialogue models do not exploit this kind of knowledge effectively enough. In this paper, we propose a novel Transformer-based architecture for multi-turn document grounded conversations. In particular, we devise an Incremental Transformer to encode multi-turn utterances along with knowledge in related documents. Motivated by the human cognitive process, we design a two-pass decoder (Deliberation Decoder) to improve context coherence and knowledge correctness. Our empirical study on a real-world Document Grounded Dataset proves that responses generated by our model significantly outperform competitive baselines on both context coherence and knowledge relevance.

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Incremental Learning from Scratch for Task-Oriented Dialogue Systems
Weikang Wang | Jiajun Zhang | Qian Li | Mei-Yuh Hwang | Chengqing Zong | Zhifei Li
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Clarifying user needs is essential for existing task-oriented dialogue systems. However, in real-world applications, developers can never guarantee that all possible user demands are taken into account in the design phase. Consequently, existing systems will break down when encountering unconsidered user needs. To address this problem, we propose a novel incremental learning framework to design task-oriented dialogue systems, or for short Incremental Dialogue System (IDS), without pre-defining the exhaustive list of user needs. Specifically, we introduce an uncertainty estimation module to evaluate the confidence of giving correct responses. If there is high confidence, IDS will provide responses to users. Otherwise, humans will be involved in the dialogue process, and IDS can learn from human intervention through an online learning module. To evaluate our method, we propose a new dataset which simulates unanticipated user needs in the deployment stage. Experiments show that IDS is robust to unconsidered user actions, and can update itself online by smartly selecting only the most effective training data, and hence attains better performance with less annotation cost.

2018

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A Multi-Attention based Neural Network with External Knowledge for Story Ending Predicting Task
Qian Li | Ziwei Li | Jin-Mao Wei | Yanhui Gu | Adam Jatowt | Zhenglu Yang
Proceedings of the 27th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Enabling a mechanism to understand a temporal story and predict its ending is an interesting issue that has attracted considerable attention, as in case of the ROC Story Cloze Task (SCT). In this paper, we develop a multi-attention-based neural network (MANN) with well-designed optimizations, like Highway Network, and concatenated features with embedding representations into the hierarchical neural network model. Considering the particulars of the specific task, we thoughtfully extend MANN with external knowledge resources, exceeding state-of-the-art results obviously. Furthermore, we develop a thorough understanding of our model through a careful hand analysis on a subset of the stories. We identify what traits of MANN contribute to its outperformance and how external knowledge is obtained in such an ending prediction task.