Qianqian Xie


2023

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Can Language Models Make Fun? A Case Study in Chinese Comical Crosstalk
Jianquan Li | XiangBo Wu | Xiaokang Liu | Qianqian Xie | Prayag Tiwari | Benyou Wang
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Language is the principal tool for human communication, in which humor is one of the most attractive parts. Producing natural language like humans using computers, a.k.a, Natural Language Generation (NLG), has been widely used for dialogue systems, chatbots, machine translation, as well as computer-aid creation e.g., idea generations, scriptwriting. However, the humor aspect of natural language is relatively under-investigated, especially in the age of pre-trained language models. In this work, we aim to preliminarily test *whether NLG can generate humor as humans do*. We build a largest dataset consisting of numerous **C**hinese **C**omical **C**rosstalk scripts (called **C**3 in short), which is for a popular Chinese performing art called ‘Xiangsheng’ or ‘相声’ since 1800s.We benchmark various generation approaches including training-from-scratch Seq2seq, fine-tuned middle-scale PLMs, and large-scale PLMs (with and without fine-tuning). Moreover, we also conduct a human assessment, showing that 1) *large-scale pretraining largely improves crosstalk generation quality*; and 2) *even the scripts generated from the best PLM is far from what we expect*. We conclude humor generation could be largely improved using large-scaled PLMs, but it is still in its infancy. The data and benchmarking code are publicly available in [https://github.com/anonNo2/crosstalk-generation](https://github.com/anonNo2/crosstalk-generation).

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Towards Interpretable Mental Health Analysis with Large Language Models
Kailai Yang | Shaoxiong Ji | Tianlin Zhang | Qianqian Xie | Ziyan Kuang | Sophia Ananiadou
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

The latest large language models (LLMs) such as ChatGPT, exhibit strong capabilities in automated mental health analysis. However, existing relevant studies bear several limitations, including inadequate evaluations, lack of prompting strategies, and ignorance of exploring LLMs for explainability. To bridge these gaps, we comprehensively evaluate the mental health analysis and emotional reasoning ability of LLMs on 11 datasets across 5 tasks. We explore the effects of different prompting strategies with unsupervised and distantly supervised emotional information. Based on these prompts, we explore LLMs for interpretable mental health analysis by instructing them to generate explanations for each of their decisions. We convey strict human evaluations to assess the quality of the generated explanations, leading to a novel dataset with 163 human-assessed explanations. We benchmark existing automatic evaluation metrics on this dataset to guide future related works. According to the results, ChatGPT shows strong in-context learning ability but still has a significant gap with advanced task-specific methods. Careful prompt engineering with emotional cues and expert-written few-shot examples can also effectively improve performance on mental health analysis. In addition, ChatGPT generates explanations that approach human performance, showing its great potential in explainable mental health analysis.

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Zero-shot Temporal Relation Extraction with ChatGPT
Chenhan Yuan | Qianqian Xie | Sophia Ananiadou
The 22nd Workshop on Biomedical Natural Language Processing and BioNLP Shared Tasks

The goal of temporal relation extraction is to infer the temporal relation between two events in the document. Supervised models are dominant in this task. In this work, we investigate ChatGPT’s ability on zero-shot temporal relation extraction. We designed three different prompt techniques to break down the task and evaluate ChatGPT. Our experiments show that ChatGPT’s performance has a large gap with that of supervised methods and can heavily rely on the design of prompts. We further demonstrate that ChatGPT can infer more small relation classes correctly than supervised methods. The current shortcomings of ChatGPT on temporal relation extraction are also discussed in this paper. We found that ChatGPT cannot keep consistency during temporal inference and it fails in actively long-dependency temporal inference.

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Overview of the BioLaySumm 2023 Shared Task on Lay Summarization of Biomedical Research Articles
Tomas Goldsack | Zheheng Luo | Qianqian Xie | Carolina Scarton | Matthew Shardlow | Sophia Ananiadou | Chenghua Lin
The 22nd Workshop on Biomedical Natural Language Processing and BioNLP Shared Tasks

This paper presents the results of the shared task on Lay Summarisation of Biomedical Research Articles (BioLaySumm), hosted at the BioNLP Workshop at ACL 2023. The goal of this shared task is to develop abstractive summarisation models capable of generating “lay summaries” (i.e., summaries that are comprehensible to non-technical audiences) in both a controllable and non-controllable setting. There are two subtasks: 1) Lay Summarisation, where the goal is for participants to build models for lay summary generation only, given the full article text and the corresponding abstract as input; and2) Readability-controlled Summarisation, where the goal is for participants to train models to generate both the technical abstract and the lay summary, given an article’s main text as input. In addition to overall results, we report on the setup and insights from the BioLaySumm shared task, which attracted a total of 20 participating teams across both subtasks.

2022

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GRETEL: Graph Contrastive Topic Enhanced Language Model for Long Document Extractive Summarization
Qianqian Xie | Jimin Huang | Tulika Saha | Sophia Ananiadou
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Recently, neural topic models (NTMs) have been incorporated into pre-trained language models (PLMs), to capture the global semantic information for text summarization. However, in these methods, there remain limitations in the way they capture and integrate the global semantic information. In this paper, we propose a novel model, the graph contrastive topic enhanced language model (GRETEL), that incorporates the graph contrastive topic model with the pre-trained language model, to fully leverage both the global and local contextual semantics for long document extractive summarization. To better capture and incorporate the global semantic information into PLMs, the graph contrastive topic model integrates the hierarchical transformer encoder and the graph contrastive learning to fuse the semantic information from the global document context and the gold summary. To this end, GRETEL encourages the model to efficiently extract salient sentences that are topically related to the gold summary, rather than redundant sentences that cover sub-optimal topics. Experimental results on both general domain and biomedical datasets demonstrate that our proposed method outperforms SOTA methods.

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GenCompareSum: a hybrid unsupervised summarization method using salience
Jennifer Bishop | Qianqian Xie | Sophia Ananiadou
Proceedings of the 21st Workshop on Biomedical Language Processing

Text summarization (TS) is an important NLP task. Pre-trained Language Models (PLMs) have been used to improve the performance of TS. However, PLMs are limited by their need of labelled training data and by their attention mechanism, which often makes them unsuitable for use on long documents. To this end, we propose a hybrid, unsupervised, abstractive-extractive approach, in which we walk through a document, generating salient textual fragments representing its key points. We then select the most important sentences of the document by choosing the most similar sentences to the generated texts, calculated using BERTScore. We evaluate the efficacy of generating and using salient textual fragments to guide extractive summarization on documents from the biomedical and general scientific domains. We compare the performance between long and short documents using different generative text models, which are finetuned to generate relevant queries or document titles. We show that our hybrid approach out-performs existing unsupervised methods, as well as state-of-the-art supervised methods, despite not needing a vast amount of labelled training data.

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SMiLE: Schema-augmented Multi-level Contrastive Learning for Knowledge Graph Link Prediction
Miao Peng | Ben Liu | Qianqian Xie | Wenjie Xu | Hua Wang | Min Peng
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

Link prediction is the task of inferring missing links between entities in knowledge graphs. Embedding-based methods have shown effectiveness in addressing this problem by modeling relational patterns in triples. However, the link prediction task often requires contextual information in entity neighborhoods, while most existing embedding-based methods fail to capture it. Additionally, little attention is paid to the diversity of entity representations in different contexts, which often leads to false prediction results. In this situation, we consider that the schema of knowledge graph contains the specific contextual information, and it is beneficial for preserving the consistency of entities across contexts. In this paper, we propose a novel Schema-augmented Multi-level contrastive LEarning framework (SMiLE) to conduct knowledge graph link prediction. Specifically, we first exploit network schema as the prior constraint to sample negatives and pre-train our model by employing a multi-level contrastive learning method to yield both prior schema and contextual information. Then we fine-tune our model under the supervision of individual triples to learn subtler representations for link prediction. Extensive experimental results on four knowledge graph datasets with thorough analysis of each component demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed framework against state-of-the-art baselines. The implementation of SMiLE is available at https://github.com/GKNL/SMiLE.

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Readability Controllable Biomedical Document Summarization
Zheheng Luo | Qianqian Xie | Sophia Ananiadou
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

Different from general documents, it is recognised that the ease with which people can understand a biomedical text is eminently varied, owing to the highly technical nature of biomedical documents and the variance of readers’ domain knowledge. However, existing biomedical document summarization systems have paid little attention to readability control, leaving users with summaries that are incompatible with their levels of expertise. In recognition of this urgent demand, we introduce a new task of readability controllable summarization for biomedical documents, which aims to recognise users’ readability demands and generate summaries that better suit their needs: technical summaries for experts and plain language summaries (PLS) for laymen. To establish this task, we construct a corpus consisting of biomedical papers with technical summaries and PLSs written by the authors, and benchmark multiple advanced controllable abstractive and extractive summarization models based on pre-trained language models (PLMs) with prevalent controlling and generation techniques. Moreover, we propose a novel masked language model (MLM) based metric and its variant to effectively evaluate the readability discrepancy between lay and technical summaries. Experimental results from automated and human evaluations show that though current control techniques allow for a certain degree of readability adjustment during generation, the performance of existing controllable summarization methods is far from desirable in this task.

2021

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Inductive Topic Variational Graph Auto-Encoder for Text Classification
Qianqian Xie | Jimin Huang | Pan Du | Min Peng | Jian-Yun Nie
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Graph convolutional networks (GCNs) have been applied recently to text classification and produced an excellent performance. However, existing GCN-based methods do not assume an explicit latent semantic structure of documents, making learned representations less effective and difficult to interpret. They are also transductive in nature, thus cannot handle out-of-graph documents. To address these issues, we propose a novel model named inductive Topic Variational Graph Auto-Encoder (T-VGAE), which incorporates a topic model into variational graph-auto-encoder (VGAE) to capture the hidden semantic information between documents and words. T-VGAE inherits the interpretability of the topic model and the efficient information propagation mechanism of VGAE. It learns probabilistic representations of words and documents by jointly encoding and reconstructing the global word-level graph and bipartite graphs of documents, where each document is considered individually and decoupled from the global correlation graph so as to enable inductive learning. Our experiments on several benchmark datasets show that our method outperforms the existing competitive models on supervised and semi-supervised text classification, as well as unsupervised text representation learning. In addition, it has higher interpretability and is able to deal with unseen documents.

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Graph Relational Topic Model with Higher-order Graph Attention Auto-encoders
Qianqian Xie | Jimin Huang | Pan Du | Min Peng
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL-IJCNLP 2021

2018

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Neural Sparse Topical Coding
Min Peng | Qianqian Xie | Yanchun Zhang | Hua Wang | Xiuzhen Zhang | Jimin Huang | Gang Tian
Proceedings of the 56th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Topic models with sparsity enhancement have been proven to be effective at learning discriminative and coherent latent topics of short texts, which is critical to many scientific and engineering applications. However, the extensions of these models require carefully tailored graphical models and re-deduced inference algorithms, limiting their variations and applications. We propose a novel sparsity-enhanced topic model, Neural Sparse Topical Coding (NSTC) base on a sparsity-enhanced topic model called Sparse Topical Coding (STC). It focuses on replacing the complex inference process with the back propagation, which makes the model easy to explore extensions. Moreover, the external semantic information of words in word embeddings is incorporated to improve the representation of short texts. To illustrate the flexibility offered by the neural network based framework, we present three extensions base on NSTC without re-deduced inference algorithms. Experiments on Web Snippet and 20Newsgroups datasets demonstrate that our models outperform existing methods.