Qiaozi Gao


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Towards Large-Scale Interpretable Knowledge Graph Reasoning for Dialogue Systems
Yi-Lin Tuan | Sajjad Beygi | Maryam Fazel-Zarandi | Qiaozi Gao | Alessandra Cervone | William Yang Wang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2022

Users interacting with voice assistants today need to phrase their requests in a very specific manner to elicit an appropriate response. This limits the user experience, and is partly due to the lack of reasoning capabilities of dialogue platforms and the hand-crafted rules that require extensive labor. One possible solution to improve user experience and relieve the manual efforts of designers is to build an end-to-end dialogue system that can do reasoning itself while perceiving user’s utterances. In this work, we propose a novel method to incorporate the knowledge reasoning capability into dialog systems in a more scalable and generalizable manner. Our proposed method allows a single transformer model to directly walk on a large-scale knowledge graph to generate responses. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work to have transformer models generate responses by reasoning over differentiable knowledge graphs. We investigate the reasoning abilities of the proposed method on both task-oriented and domain-specific chit-chat dialogues. Empirical results show that this method can effectively and efficiently incorporate a knowledge graph into a dialogue system with fully-interpretable reasoning paths.


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Tiered Reasoning for Intuitive Physics: Toward Verifiable Commonsense Language Understanding
Shane Storks | Qiaozi Gao | Yichi Zhang | Joyce Chai
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2021

Large-scale, pre-trained language models (LMs) have achieved human-level performance on a breadth of language understanding tasks. However, evaluations only based on end task performance shed little light on machines’ true ability in language understanding and reasoning. In this paper, we highlight the importance of evaluating the underlying reasoning process in addition to end performance. Toward this goal, we introduce Tiered Reasoning for Intuitive Physics (TRIP), a novel commonsense reasoning dataset with dense annotations that enable multi-tiered evaluation of machines’ reasoning process. Our empirical results show that while large LMs can achieve high end performance, they struggle to support their predictions with valid supporting evidence. The TRIP dataset and our baseline results will motivate verifiable evaluation of commonsense reasoning and facilitate future research toward developing better language understanding and reasoning models.


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Commonsense Justification for Action Explanation
Shaohua Yang | Qiaozi Gao | Sari Sadiya | Joyce Chai
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

To enable collaboration and communication between humans and agents, this paper investigates learning to acquire commonsense evidence for action justification. In particular, we have developed an approach based on the generative Conditional Variational Autoencoder(CVAE) that models object relations/attributes of the world as latent variables and jointly learns a performer that predicts actions and an explainer that gathers commonsense evidence to justify the action. Our empirical results have shown that, compared to a typical attention-based model, CVAE achieves significantly higher performance in both action prediction and justification. A human subject study further shows that the commonsense evidence gathered by CVAE can be communicated to humans to achieve a significantly higher common ground between humans and agents.

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What Action Causes This? Towards Naive Physical Action-Effect Prediction
Qiaozi Gao | Shaohua Yang | Joyce Chai | Lucy Vanderwende
Proceedings of the 56th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Despite recent advances in knowledge representation, automated reasoning, and machine learning, artificial agents still lack the ability to understand basic action-effect relations regarding the physical world, for example, the action of cutting a cucumber most likely leads to the state where the cucumber is broken apart into smaller pieces. If artificial agents (e.g., robots) ever become our partners in joint tasks, it is critical to empower them with such action-effect understanding so that they can reason about the state of the world and plan for actions. Towards this goal, this paper introduces a new task on naive physical action-effect prediction, which addresses the relations between concrete actions (expressed in the form of verb-noun pairs) and their effects on the state of the physical world as depicted by images. We collected a dataset for this task and developed an approach that harnesses web image data through distant supervision to facilitate learning for action-effect prediction. Our empirical results have shown that web data can be used to complement a small number of seed examples (e.g., three examples for each action) for model learning. This opens up possibilities for agents to learn physical action-effect relations for tasks at hand through communication with humans with a few examples.


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Physical Causality of Action Verbs in Grounded Language Understanding
Qiaozi Gao | Malcolm Doering | Shaohua Yang | Joyce Chai
Proceedings of the 54th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

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Grounded Semantic Role Labeling
Shaohua Yang | Qiaozi Gao | Changsong Liu | Caiming Xiong | Song-Chun Zhu | Joyce Y. Chai
Proceedings of the 2016 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies