Qingxiu Dong


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Multilingual Machine Translation with Large Language Models: Empirical Results and Analysis
Wenhao Zhu | Hongyi Liu | Qingxiu Dong | Jingjing Xu | Shujian Huang | Lingpeng Kong | Jiajun Chen | Lei Li
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: NAACL 2024

Large language models (LLMs) have demonstrated remarkable potential in handling multilingual machine translation (MMT). In this paper, we systematically investigate the advantages and challenges of LLMs for MMT by answering two questions: 1) How well do LLMs perform in translating massive languages? 2) Which factors affect LLMs’ performance in translation? We thoroughly evaluate eight popular LLMs, including ChatGPT and GPT-4. Our empirical results show that translation capabilities of LLMs are continually involving. GPT-4 has beat the strong supervised baseline NLLB in 40.91% of translation directions but still faces a large gap towards the commercial translation system like Google Translate, especially on low-resource languages. Through further analysis, we discover that LLMs exhibit new working patterns when used for MMT. First, LLM can acquire translation ability in a resource-efficient way and generate moderate translation even on zero-resource languages. Second, instruction semantics can surprisingly be ignored when given in-context exemplars. Third, cross-lingual exemplars can provide better task guidance for low-resource translation than exemplars in the same language pairs. Code will be released at: https://github.com/NJUNLP/MMT-LLM.


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Can We Edit Factual Knowledge by In-Context Learning?
Ce Zheng | Lei Li | Qingxiu Dong | Yuxuan Fan | Zhiyong Wu | Jingjing Xu | Baobao Chang
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Previous studies have shown that large language models (LLMs) like GPTs store massive factual knowledge in their parameters. However, the stored knowledge could be false or outdated. Traditional knowledge editing methods refine LLMs via fine-tuning on texts containing specific knowledge. However, with the increasing scales of LLMs, these gradient-based approaches bring large computation costs. The trend of model-as-a-service also makes it impossible to modify knowledge in black-box LMs. Inspired by in-context learning (ICL), a new paradigm based on demonstration contexts without parameter updating, we explore whether ICL can edit factual knowledge. To answer this question, we give a comprehensive empirical study of ICL strategies. Experiments show that in-context knowledge editing (IKE), without any gradient and parameter updating, achieves a competitive success rate compared to gradient-based methods on GPT-J (6B) but with much fewer side effects, including less over-editing on similar but unrelated facts and less knowledge forgetting on previously stored knowledge. We also apply the method to larger LMs with tens or hundreds of parameters like OPT-175B, which shows the scalability of our method. The code is available at https://github.com/pkunlp-icler/IKE.

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Can Language Models Understand Physical Concepts?
Lei Li | Jingjing Xu | Qingxiu Dong | Ce Zheng | Xu Sun | Lingpeng Kong | Qi Liu
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Language models (LMs) gradually become general-purpose interfaces in the interactive and embodied world, where the understanding of physical concepts is an essential prerequisite. However, it is unclear whether LMs can understand physical concepts in the human world. To investigate this, we design a benchmark VEC that covers the tasks of (i) Visual concepts, such as the shape and material of objects, and (ii) Embodied Concepts, learned from the interaction with the world such as the temperature of objects. Our zero (few)-shot prompting results show that the understanding of certain visual concepts emerges as scaling up LMs, but there are still basic concepts to which the scaling law does not apply. For example, OPT-175B performs close to humans with a zero-shot accuracy of 85% on the material concept, yet behaves like random guessing on the mass concept. Instead, vision-augmented LMs such as CLIP and BLIP achieve a human-level understanding of embodied concepts. Analysis indicates that the rich semantics in visual representation can serve as a valuable source of embodied knowledge. Inspired by this, we propose a distillation method to transfer embodied knowledge from VLMs to LMs, achieving performance gain comparable with that by scaling up parameters of LMs 134×. Our dataset is available at https://github.com/TobiasLee/VEC.

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ImageNetVC: Zero- and Few-Shot Visual Commonsense Evaluation on 1000 ImageNet Categories
Heming Xia | Qingxiu Dong | Lei Li | Jingjing Xu | Tianyu Liu | Ziwei Qin | Zhifang Sui
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Recently, Large Language Models (LLMs) have been serving as general-purpose interfaces, posing a significant demand for comprehensive visual knowledge. However, it remains unclear how well current LLMs and their visually augmented counterparts (VaLMs) can master visual commonsense knowledge. To investigate this, we propose ImageNetVC, a human-annotated dataset specifically designed for zero- and few-shot visual commonsense evaluation across 1,000 ImageNet categories. Utilizing ImageNetVC, we benchmark the fundamental visual commonsense knowledge of both unimodal LLMs and VaLMs. Furthermore, we analyze the factors affecting the visual commonsense knowledge of large-scale models, providing insights into the development of language models enriched with visual commonsense knowledge. Our code and dataset are available at https://github.com/hemingkx/ImageNetVC.


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Calibrating Factual Knowledge in Pretrained Language Models
Qingxiu Dong | Damai Dai | Yifan Song | Jingjing Xu | Zhifang Sui | Lei Li
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

Previous literature has proved that Pretrained Language Models (PLMs) can store factual knowledge. However, we find that facts stored in the PLMs are not always correct. It motivates us to explore a fundamental question: How do we calibrate factual knowledge in PLMs without re-training from scratch? In this work, we propose a simple and lightweight method CaliNet to achieve this goal. To be specific, we first detect whether PLMs can learn the right facts via a contrastive score between right and fake facts. If not, we then use a lightweight method to add and adapt new parameters to specific factual texts. Experiments on the knowledge probing task show the calibration effectiveness and efficiency. In addition, through closed-book question answering, we find that the calibrated PLM possesses knowledge generalization ability after finetuning.Beyond the calibration performance, we further investigate and visualize the knowledge calibration mechanism.

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Premise-based Multimodal Reasoning: Conditional Inference on Joint Textual and Visual Clues
Qingxiu Dong | Ziwei Qin | Heming Xia | Tian Feng | Shoujie Tong | Haoran Meng | Lin Xu | Zhongyu Wei | Weidong Zhan | Baobao Chang | Sujian Li | Tianyu Liu | Zhifang Sui
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

It is a common practice for recent works in vision language cross-modal reasoning to adopt a binary or multi-choice classification formulation taking as input a set of source image(s) and textual query. In this work, we take a sober look at such an “unconditional” formulation in the sense that no prior knowledge is specified with respect to the source image(s). Inspired by the designs of both visual commonsense reasoning and natural language inference tasks, we propose a new task termed “Premise-based Multi-modal Reasoning” (PMR) where a textual premise is the background presumption on each source image. The PMR dataset contains 15,360 manually annotated samples which are created by a multi-phase crowd-sourcing process. With selected high-quality movie screenshots and human-curated premise templates from 6 pre-defined categories, we ask crowd-source workers to write one true hypothesis and three distractors (4 choices) given the premise and image through a cross-check procedure.


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ParaSCI: A Large Scientific Paraphrase Dataset for Longer Paraphrase Generation
Qingxiu Dong | Xiaojun Wan | Yue Cao
Proceedings of the 16th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Main Volume

We propose ParaSCI, the first large-scale paraphrase dataset in the scientific field, including 33,981 paraphrase pairs from ACL (ParaSCI-ACL) and 316,063 pairs from arXiv (ParaSCI-arXiv). Digging into characteristics and common patterns of scientific papers, we construct this dataset though intra-paper and inter-paper methods, such as collecting citations to the same paper or aggregating definitions by scientific terms. To take advantage of sentences paraphrased partially, we put up PDBERT as a general paraphrase discovering method. The major advantages of paraphrases in ParaSCI lie in the prominent length and textual diversity, which is complementary to existing paraphrase datasets. ParaSCI obtains satisfactory results on human evaluation and downstream tasks, especially long paraphrase generation.