Qinlan Shen


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Don’t Just Clean It, Proxy Clean It: Mitigating Bias by Proxy in Pre-Trained Models
Swetasudha Panda | Ari Kobren | Michael Wick | Qinlan Shen
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

Transformer-based pre-trained models are known to encode societal biases not only in their contextual representations, but also in downstream predictions when fine-tuned on task-specific data. We present D-Bias, an approach that selectively eliminates stereotypical associations (e.g, co-occurrence statistics) at fine-tuning, such that the model doesn’t learn to excessively rely on those signals.D-Bias attenuates biases from both identity words and frequently co-occurring proxies, which we select using pointwise mutual information. We apply D-Bias to a) occupation classification, and b) toxicity classification and find that our approach substantially reduces downstream biases (e.g. by > 60% in toxicity classification, for identities that are most frequently flagged as toxic on online platforms).In addition, we show that D-Bias dramatically improves upon scrubbing, i.e., removing only the identity words in question. We also demonstrate that D-Bias easily extends to multiple identities, and achieves competitive performance with two recently proposed debiasing approaches: R-LACE and INLP.


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FanfictionNLP: A Text Processing Pipeline for Fanfiction
Michael Yoder | Sopan Khosla | Qinlan Shen | Aakanksha Naik | Huiming Jin | Hariharan Muralidharan | Carolyn Rosé
Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Narrative Understanding

Fanfiction presents an opportunity as a data source for research in NLP, education, and social science. However, answering specific research questions with this data is difficult, since fanfiction contains more diverse writing styles than formal fiction. We present a text processing pipeline for fanfiction, with a focus on identifying text associated with characters. The pipeline includes modules for character identification and coreference, as well as the attribution of quotes and narration to those characters. Additionally, the pipeline contains a novel approach to character coreference that uses knowledge from quote attribution to resolve pronouns within quotes. For each module, we evaluate the effectiveness of various approaches on 10 annotated fanfiction stories. This pipeline outperforms tools developed for formal fiction on the tasks of character coreference and quote attribution

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What Sounds “Right” to Me? Experiential Factors in the Perception of Political Ideology
Qinlan Shen | Carolyn Rose
Proceedings of the 16th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Main Volume

In this paper, we challenge the assumption that political ideology is inherently built into text by presenting an investigation into the impact of experiential factors on annotator perceptions of political ideology. We construct an annotated corpus of U.S. political discussion, where in addition to ideology labels for texts, annotators provide information about their political affiliation, exposure to political news, and familiarity with the source domain of discussion, Reddit. We investigate the variability in ideology judgments across annotators, finding evidence that these experiential factors may influence the consistency of how political ideologies are perceived. Finally, we present evidence that understanding how humans perceive and interpret ideology from texts remains a challenging task for state-of-the-art language models, pointing towards potential issues when modeling user experiences that may require more contextual knowledge.

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MultiReQA: A Cross-Domain Evaluation forRetrieval Question Answering Models
Mandy Guo | Yinfei Yang | Daniel Cer | Qinlan Shen | Noah Constant
Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Domain Adaptation for NLP

Retrieval question answering (ReQA) is the task of retrieving a sentence-level answer to a question from an open corpus (Ahmad et al.,2019).This dataset paper presents MultiReQA, a new multi-domain ReQA evaluation suite composed of eight retrieval QA tasks drawn from publicly available QA datasets. We explore systematic retrieval based evaluation and transfer learning across domains over these datasets using a number of strong base-lines including two supervised neural models, based on fine-tuning BERT and USE-QA models respectively, as well as a surprisingly effective information retrieval baseline, BM25. Five of these tasks contain both training and test data, while three contain test data only. Performing cross training on the five tasks with training data shows that while a general model covering all domains is achievable, the best performance is often obtained by training exclusively on in-domain data.


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The Discourse of Online Content Moderation: Investigating Polarized User Responses to Changes in Reddit’s Quarantine Policy
Qinlan Shen | Carolyn Rose
Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Abusive Language Online

Recent concerns over abusive behavior on their platforms have pressured social media companies to strengthen their content moderation policies. However, user opinions on these policies have been relatively understudied. In this paper, we present an analysis of user responses to a September 27, 2018 announcement about the quarantine policy on Reddit as a case study of to what extent the discourse on content moderation is polarized by users’ ideological viewpoint. We introduce a novel partitioning approach for characterizing user polarization based on their distribution of participation across interest subreddits. We then use automated techniques for capturing framing to examine how users with different viewpoints discuss moderation issues, finding that right-leaning users invoked censorship while left-leaning users highlighted inconsistencies on how content policies are applied. Overall, we argue for a more nuanced approach to moderation by highlighting the intersection of behavior and ideology in considering how abusive language is defined and regulated.


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Effective Parallel Corpus Mining using Bilingual Sentence Embeddings
Mandy Guo | Qinlan Shen | Yinfei Yang | Heming Ge | Daniel Cer | Gustavo Hernandez Abrego | Keith Stevens | Noah Constant | Yun-Hsuan Sung | Brian Strope | Ray Kurzweil
Proceedings of the Third Conference on Machine Translation: Research Papers

This paper presents an effective approach for parallel corpus mining using bilingual sentence embeddings. Our embedding models are trained to produce similar representations exclusively for bilingual sentence pairs that are translations of each other. This is achieved using a novel training method that introduces hard negatives consisting of sentences that are not translations but have some degree of semantic similarity. The quality of the resulting embeddings are evaluated on parallel corpus reconstruction and by assessing machine translation systems trained on gold vs. mined sentence pairs. We find that the sentence embeddings can be used to reconstruct the United Nations Parallel Corpus (Ziemski et al., 2016) at the sentence-level with a precision of 48.9% for en-fr and 54.9% for en-es. When adapted to document-level matching, we achieve a parallel document matching accuracy that is comparable to the significantly more computationally intensive approach of Uszkoreit et al. (2010). Using reconstructed parallel data, we are able to train NMT models that perform nearly as well as models trained on the original data (within 1-2 BLEU).

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Attentive Interaction Model: Modeling Changes in View in Argumentation
Yohan Jo | Shivani Poddar | Byungsoo Jeon | Qinlan Shen | Carolyn Rosé | Graham Neubig
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long Papers)

We present a neural architecture for modeling argumentative dialogue that explicitly models the interplay between an Opinion Holder’s (OH’s) reasoning and a challenger’s argument, with the goal of predicting if the argument successfully changes the OH’s view. The model has two components: (1) vulnerable region detection, an attention model that identifies parts of the OH’s reasoning that are amenable to change, and (2) interaction encoding, which identifies the relationship between the content of the OH’s reasoning and that of the challenger’s argument. Based on evaluation on discussions from the Change My View forum on Reddit, the two components work together to predict an OH’s change in view, outperforming several baselines. A posthoc analysis suggests that sentences picked out by the attention model are addressed more frequently by successful arguments than by unsuccessful ones.


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Metaphor Detection with Topic Transition, Emotion and Cognition in Context
Hyeju Jang | Yohan Jo | Qinlan Shen | Michael Miller | Seungwhan Moon | Carolyn Rosé
Proceedings of the 54th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

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The Role of Context in Neural Morphological Disambiguation
Qinlan Shen | Daniel Clothiaux | Emily Tagtow | Patrick Littell | Chris Dyer
Proceedings of COLING 2016, the 26th International Conference on Computational Linguistics: Technical Papers

Languages with rich morphology often introduce sparsity in language processing tasks. While morphological analyzers can reduce this sparsity by providing morpheme-level analyses for words, they will often introduce ambiguity by returning multiple analyses for the same surface form. The problem of disambiguating between these morphological parses is further complicated by the fact that a correct parse for a word is not only be dependent on the surface form but also on other words in its context. In this paper, we present a language-agnostic approach to morphological disambiguation. We address the problem of using context in morphological disambiguation by presenting several LSTM-based neural architectures that encode long-range surface-level and analysis-level contextual dependencies. We applied our approach to Turkish, Russian, and Arabic to compare effectiveness across languages, matching state-of-the-art results in two of the three languages. Our results also demonstrate that while context plays a role in learning how to disambiguate, the type and amount of context needed varies between languages.