In this work, we study Unsupervised Domain Adaptation (UDA) in a challenging self-supervised approach. One of the difficulties is how to learn task discrimination in the absence of target labels. Unlike previous literature which directly aligns cross-domain distributions or leverages reverse gradient, we propose Domain Confused Contrastive Learning (DCCL), which can bridge the source and target domains via domain puzzles, and retain discriminative representations after adaptation. Technically, DCCL searches for a most domain-challenging direction and exquisitely crafts domain confused augmentations as positive pairs, then it contrastively encourages the model to pull representations towards the other domain, thus learning more stable and effective domain invariances. We also investigate whether contrastive learning necessarily helps with UDA when performing other data augmentations. Extensive experiments demonstrate that DCCL significantly outperforms baselines, further ablation study and analysis also show the effectiveness and availability of DCCL.
There are common semantics shared across text and images. Given a sentence in a source language, whether depicting the visual scene helps translation into a target language? Existing multimodal neural machine translation methods (MNMT) require triplets of bilingual sentence - image for training and tuples of source sentence - image for inference. In this paper, we propose ImagiT, a novel machine translation method via visual imagination. ImagiT first learns to generate visual representation from the source sentence, and then utilizes both source sentence and the “imagined representation” to produce a target translation. Unlike previous methods, it only needs the source sentence at the inference time. Experiments demonstrate that ImagiT benefits from visual imagination and significantly outperforms the text-only neural machine translation baselines. Further analysis reveals that the imagination process in ImagiT helps fill in missing information when performing the degradation strategy.
We conduct a thorough study to diagnose the behaviors of pre-trained language encoders (ELMo, BERT, and RoBERTa) when confronted with natural grammatical errors. Specifically, we collect real grammatical errors from non-native speakers and conduct adversarial attacks to simulate these errors on clean text data. We use this approach to facilitate debugging models on downstream applications. Results confirm that the performance of all tested models is affected but the degree of impact varies. To interpret model behaviors, we further design a linguistic acceptability task to reveal their abilities in identifying ungrammatical sentences and the position of errors. We find that fixed contextual encoders with a simple classifier trained on the prediction of sentence correctness are able to locate error positions. We also design a cloze test for BERT and discover that BERT captures the interaction between errors and specific tokens in context. Our results shed light on understanding the robustness and behaviors of language encoders against grammatical errors.