Rainer Gemulla


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Sequence-to-Sequence Knowledge Graph Completion and Question Answering
Apoorv Saxena | Adrian Kochsiek | Rainer Gemulla
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Knowledge graph embedding (KGE) models represent each entity and relation of a knowledge graph (KG) with low-dimensional embedding vectors. These methods have recently been applied to KG link prediction and question answering over incomplete KGs (KGQA). KGEs typically create an embedding for each entity in the graph, which results in large model sizes on real-world graphs with millions of entities. For downstream tasks these atomic entity representations often need to be integrated into a multi stage pipeline, limiting their utility. We show that an off-the-shelf encoder-decoder Transformer model can serve as a scalable and versatile KGE model obtaining state-of-the-art results for KG link prediction and incomplete KG question answering. We achieve this by posing KG link prediction as a sequence-to-sequence task and exchange the triple scoring approach taken by prior KGE methods with autoregressive decoding. Such a simple but powerful method reduces the model size up to 98% compared to conventional KGE models while keeping inference time tractable. After finetuning this model on the task of KGQA over incomplete KGs, our approach outperforms baselines on multiple large-scale datasets without extensive hyperparameter tuning.


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Can We Predict New Facts with Open Knowledge Graph Embeddings? A Benchmark for Open Link Prediction
Samuel Broscheit | Kiril Gashteovski | Yanjie Wang | Rainer Gemulla
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Open Information Extraction systems extract (“subject text”, “relation text”, “object text”) triples from raw text. Some triples are textual versions of facts, i.e., non-canonicalized mentions of entities and relations. In this paper, we investigate whether it is possible to infer new facts directly from the open knowledge graph without any canonicalization or any supervision from curated knowledge. For this purpose, we propose the open link prediction task,i.e., predicting test facts by completing (“subject text”, “relation text”, ?) questions. An evaluation in such a setup raises the question if a correct prediction is actually a new fact that was induced by reasoning over the open knowledge graph or if it can be trivially explained. For example, facts can appear in different paraphrased textual variants, which can lead to test leakage. To this end, we propose an evaluation protocol and a methodology for creating the open link prediction benchmark OlpBench. We performed experiments with a prototypical knowledge graph embedding model for openlink prediction. While the task is very challenging, our results suggests that it is possible to predict genuinely new facts, which can not be trivially explained.

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LibKGE - A knowledge graph embedding library for reproducible research
Samuel Broscheit | Daniel Ruffinelli | Adrian Kochsiek | Patrick Betz | Rainer Gemulla
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing: System Demonstrations

LibKGE ( https://github.com/uma-pi1/kge ) is an open-source PyTorch-based library for training, hyperparameter optimization, and evaluation of knowledge graph embedding models for link prediction. The key goals of LibKGE are to enable reproducible research, to provide a framework for comprehensive experimental studies, and to facilitate analyzing the contributions of individual components of training methods, model architectures, and evaluation methods. LibKGE is highly configurable and every experiment can be fully reproduced with a single configuration file. Individual components are decoupled to the extent possible so that they can be mixed and matched with each other. Implementations in LibKGE aim to be as efficient as possible without leaving the scope of Python/Numpy/PyTorch. A comprehensive logging mechanism and tooling facilitates in-depth analysis. LibKGE provides implementations of common knowledge graph embedding models and training methods, and new ones can be easily added. A comparative study (Ruffinelli et al., 2020) showed that LibKGE reaches competitive to state-of-the-art performance for many models with a modest amount of automatic hyperparameter tuning.

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On Aligning OpenIE Extractions with Knowledge Bases: A Case Study
Kiril Gashteovski | Rainer Gemulla | Bhushan Kotnis | Sven Hertling | Christian Meilicke
Proceedings of the First Workshop on Evaluation and Comparison of NLP Systems

Open information extraction (OIE) is the task of extracting relations and their corresponding arguments from a natural language text in un- supervised manner. Outputs of such systems are used for downstream tasks such as ques- tion answering and automatic knowledge base (KB) construction. Many of these downstream tasks rely on aligning OIE triples with refer- ence KBs. Such alignments are usually eval- uated w.r.t. a specific downstream task and, to date, no direct manual evaluation of such alignments has been performed. In this paper, we directly evaluate how OIE triples from the OPIEC corpus are related to the DBpedia KB w.r.t. information content. First, we investigate OPIEC triples and DBpedia facts having the same arguments by comparing the information on the OIE surface relation with the KB rela- tion. Second, we evaluate the expressibility of general OPIEC triples in DBpedia. We in- vestigate whether—and, if so, how—a given OIE triple can be mapped to a single KB fact. We found that such mappings are not always possible because the information in the OIE triples tends to be more specific. Our evalua- tion suggests, however, that significant part of OIE triples can be expressed by means of KB formulas instead of individual facts.


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On Evaluating Embedding Models for Knowledge Base Completion
Yanjie Wang | Daniel Ruffinelli | Rainer Gemulla | Samuel Broscheit | Christian Meilicke
Proceedings of the 4th Workshop on Representation Learning for NLP (RepL4NLP-2019)

Knowledge graph embedding models have recently received significant attention in the literature. These models learn latent semantic representations for the entities and relations in a given knowledge base; the representations can be used to infer missing knowledge. In this paper, we study the question of how well recent embedding models perform for the task of knowledge base completion, i.e., the task of inferring new facts from an incomplete knowledge base. We argue that the entity ranking protocol, which is currently used to evaluate knowledge graph embedding models, is not suitable to answer this question since only a subset of the model predictions are evaluated. We propose an alternative entity-pair ranking protocol that considers all model predictions as a whole and is thus more suitable to the task. We conducted an experimental study on standard datasets and found that the performance of popular embeddings models was unsatisfactory under the new protocol, even on datasets that are generally considered to be too easy. Moreover, we found that a simple rule-based model often provided superior performance. Our findings suggest that there is a need for more research into embedding models as well as their training strategies for the task of knowledge base completion.


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A Neural Autoencoder Approach for Document Ranking and Query Refinement in Pharmacogenomic Information Retrieval
Jonas Pfeiffer | Samuel Broscheit | Rainer Gemulla | Mathias Göschl
Proceedings of the BioNLP 2018 workshop

In this study, we investigate learning-to-rank and query refinement approaches for information retrieval in the pharmacogenomic domain. The goal is to improve the information retrieval process of biomedical curators, who manually build knowledge bases for personalized medicine. We study how to exploit the relationships between genes, variants, drugs, diseases and outcomes as features for document ranking and query refinement. For a supervised approach, we are faced with a small amount of annotated data and a large amount of unannotated data. Therefore, we explore ways to use a neural document auto-encoder in a semi-supervised approach. We show that a combination of established algorithms, feature-engineering and a neural auto-encoder model yield promising results in this setting.


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MinIE: Minimizing Facts in Open Information Extraction
Kiril Gashteovski | Rainer Gemulla | Luciano del Corro
Proceedings of the 2017 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

The goal of Open Information Extraction (OIE) is to extract surface relations and their arguments from natural-language text in an unsupervised, domain-independent manner. In this paper, we propose MinIE, an OIE system that aims to provide useful, compact extractions with high precision and recall. MinIE approaches these goals by (1) representing information about polarity, modality, attribution, and quantities with semantic annotations instead of in the actual extraction, and (2) identifying and removing parts that are considered overly specific. We conducted an experimental study with several real-world datasets and found that MinIE achieves competitive or higher precision and recall than most prior systems, while at the same time producing shorter, semantically enriched extractions.


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FINET: Context-Aware Fine-Grained Named Entity Typing
Luciano Del Corro | Abdalghani Abujabal | Rainer Gemulla | Gerhard Weikum
Proceedings of the 2015 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

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CORE: Context-Aware Open Relation Extraction with Factorization Machines
Fabio Petroni | Luciano Del Corro | Rainer Gemulla
Proceedings of the 2015 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing


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Werdy: Recognition and Disambiguation of Verbs and Verb Phrases with Syntactic and Semantic Pruning
Luciano Del Corro | Rainer Gemulla | Gerhard Weikum
Proceedings of the 2014 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

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Senti-LSSVM: Sentiment-Oriented Multi-Relation Extraction with Latent Structural SVM
Lizhen Qu | Yi Zhang | Rui Wang | Lili Jiang | Rainer Gemulla | Gerhard Weikum
Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Volume 2

Extracting instances of sentiment-oriented relations from user-generated web documents is important for online marketing analysis. Unlike previous work, we formulate this extraction task as a structured prediction problem and design the corresponding inference as an integer linear program. Our latent structural SVM based model can learn from training corpora that do not contain explicit annotations of sentiment-bearing expressions, and it can simultaneously recognize instances of both binary (polarity) and ternary (comparative) relations with regard to entity mentions of interest. The empirical evaluation shows that our approach significantly outperforms state-of-the-art systems across domains (cameras and movies) and across genres (reviews and forum posts). The gold standard corpus that we built will also be a valuable resource for the community.


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A Weakly Supervised Model for Sentence-Level Semantic Orientation Analysis with Multiple Experts
Lizhen Qu | Rainer Gemulla | Gerhard Weikum
Proceedings of the 2012 Joint Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and Computational Natural Language Learning