Raj Shah


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Numeric Magnitude Comparison Effects in Large Language Models
Raj Shah | Vijay Marupudi | Reba Koenen | Khushi Bhardwaj | Sashank Varma
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Large Language Models (LLMs) do not differentially represent numbers, which are pervasive in text. In contrast, neuroscience research has identified distinct neural representations for numbers and words. In this work, we investigate how well popular LLMs capture the magnitudes of numbers (e.g., that 4<5) from a behavioral lens. Prior research on the representational capabilities of LLMs evaluates whether they show human-level performance, for instance, high overall accuracy on standard benchmarks. Here, we ask a different question, one inspired by cognitive science: How closely do the number representations of LLMscorrespond to those of human language users, who typically demonstrate the distance, size, and ratio effects? We depend on a linking hypothesis to map the similarities among the model embeddings of number words and digits to human response times. The results reveal surprisingly human-like representations across language models of different architectures, despite the absence of the neural circuitry that directly supports these representations in the human brain. This research shows the utility of understanding LLMs using behavioral benchmarks and points the way to future work on the number of representations of LLMs and their cognitive plausibility.


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JARVix at SemEval-2022 Task 2: It Takes One to Know One? Idiomaticity Detection using Zero and One-Shot Learning
Yash Jakhotiya | Vaibhav Kumar | Ashwin Pathak | Raj Shah
Proceedings of the 16th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation (SemEval-2022)

Large Language Models have been successful in a wide variety of Natural Language Processing tasks by capturing the compositionality of the text representations. In spite of their great success, these vector representations fail to capture meaning of idiomatic multi-word expressions (MWEs). In this paper, we focus on the detection of idiomatic expressions by using binary classification. We use a dataset consisting of the literal and idiomatic usage of MWEs in English and Portuguese. Thereafter, we perform the classification in two different settings: zero shot and one shot, to determine if a given sentence contains an idiom or not. N shot classification for this task is defined by N number of common idioms between the training and testing sets. In this paper, we train multiple Large Language Models in both the settings and achieve an F1 score (macro) of 0.73 for the zero shot setting and an F1 score (macro) of 0.85 for the one shot setting. An implementation of our work can be found at https://github.com/ashwinpathak20/Idiomaticity_Detection_Using_Few_Shot_Learning.

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When FLUE Meets FLANG: Benchmarks and Large Pretrained Language Model for Financial Domain
Raj Shah | Kunal Chawla | Dheeraj Eidnani | Agam Shah | Wendi Du | Sudheer Chava | Natraj Raman | Charese Smiley | Jiaao Chen | Diyi Yang
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Pre-trained language models have shown impressive performance on a variety of tasks and domains. Previous research on financial language models usually employs a generic training scheme to train standard model architectures, without completely leveraging the richness of the financial data. We propose a novel domain specific Financial LANGuage model (FLANG) which uses financial keywords and phrases for better masking, together with span boundary objective and in-filing objective. Additionally, the evaluation benchmarks in the field have been limited. To this end, we contribute the Financial Language Understanding Evaluation (FLUE), an open-source comprehensive suite of benchmarks for the financial domain. These include new benchmarks across 5 NLP tasks in financial domain as well as common benchmarks used in the previous research. Experiments on these benchmarks suggest that our model outperforms those in prior literature on a variety of NLP tasks. Our models, code and benchmark data will be made publicly available on Github and Huggingface.