Rajarshi Bhowmik


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Unsupervised Contrast-Consistent Ranking with Language Models
Niklas Stoehr | Pengxiang Cheng | Jing Wang | Daniel Preotiuc-Pietro | Rajarshi Bhowmik
Proceedings of the 18th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Language models contain ranking-based knowledge and are powerful solvers of in-context ranking tasks. For instance, they may have parametric knowledge about the ordering of countries by size or may be able to rank product reviews by sentiment. We compare pairwise, pointwise and listwise prompting techniques to elicit a language model’s ranking knowledge. However, we find that even with careful calibration and constrained decoding, prompting-based techniques may not always be self-consistent in the rankings they produce. This motivates us to explore an alternative approach that is inspired by an unsupervised probing method called Contrast-Consistent Search (CCS). The idea is to train a probe guided by a logical constraint: a language model’s representation of a statement and its negation must be mapped to contrastive true-false poles consistently across multiple statements. We hypothesize that similar constraints apply to ranking tasks where all items are related via consistent, pairwise or listwise comparisons. To this end, we extend the binary CCS method to Contrast-Consistent Ranking (CCR) by adapting existing ranking methods such as the Max-Margin Loss, Triplet Loss and an Ordinal Regression objective. Across different models and datasets, our results confirm that CCR probing performs better or, at least, on a par with prompting.


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Learning Rich Representation of Keyphrases from Text
Mayank Kulkarni | Debanjan Mahata | Ravneet Arora | Rajarshi Bhowmik
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: NAACL 2022

In this work, we explore how to train task-specific language models aimed towards learning rich representation of keyphrases from text documents. We experiment with different masking strategies for pre-training transformer language models (LMs) in discriminative as well as generative settings. In the discriminative setting, we introduce a new pre-training objective - Keyphrase Boundary Infilling with Replacement (KBIR), showing large gains in performance (upto 8.16 points in F1) over SOTA, when the LM pre-trained using KBIR is fine-tuned for the task of keyphrase extraction. In the generative setting, we introduce a new pre-training setup for BART - KeyBART, that reproduces the keyphrases related to the input text in the CatSeq format, instead of the denoised original input. This also led to gains in performance (upto 4.33 points in F1@M) over SOTA for keyphrase generation. Additionally, we also fine-tune the pre-trained language models on named entity recognition (NER), question answering (QA), relation extraction (RE), abstractive summarization and achieve comparable performance with that of the SOTA, showing that learning rich representation of keyphrases is indeed beneficial for many other fundamental NLP tasks.


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Fast and Effective Biomedical Entity Linking Using a Dual Encoder
Rajarshi Bhowmik | Karl Stratos | Gerard de Melo
Proceedings of the 12th International Workshop on Health Text Mining and Information Analysis

Biomedical entity linking is the task of identifying mentions of biomedical concepts in text documents and mapping them to canonical entities in a target thesaurus. Recent advancements in entity linking using BERT-based models follow a retrieve and rerank paradigm, where the candidate entities are first selected using a retriever model, and then the retrieved candidates are ranked by a reranker model. While this paradigm produces state-of-the-art results, they are slow both at training and test time as they can process only one mention at a time. To mitigate these issues, we propose a BERT-based dual encoder model that resolves multiple mentions in a document in one shot. We show that our proposed model is multiple times faster than existing BERT-based models while being competitive in accuracy for biomedical entity linking. Additionally, we modify our dual encoder model for end-to-end biomedical entity linking that performs both mention span detection and entity disambiguation and out-performs two recently proposed models.

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Exploiting Image–Text Synergy for Contextual Image Captioning
Sreyasi Nag Chowdhury | Rajarshi Bhowmik | Hareesh Ravi | Gerard de Melo | Simon Razniewski | Gerhard Weikum
Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Beyond Vision and LANguage: inTEgrating Real-world kNowledge (LANTERN)

Modern web content - news articles, blog posts, educational resources, marketing brochures - is predominantly multimodal. A notable trait is the inclusion of media such as images placed at meaningful locations within a textual narrative. Most often, such images are accompanied by captions - either factual or stylistic (humorous, metaphorical, etc.) - making the narrative more engaging to the reader. While standalone image captioning has been extensively studied, captioning an image based on external knowledge such as its surrounding text remains under-explored. In this paper, we study this new task: given an image and an associated unstructured knowledge snippet, the goal is to generate a contextual caption for the image.


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Generating Fine-Grained Open Vocabulary Entity Type Descriptions
Rajarshi Bhowmik | Gerard de Melo
Proceedings of the 56th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

While large-scale knowledge graphs provide vast amounts of structured facts about entities, a short textual description can often be useful to succinctly characterize an entity and its type. Unfortunately, many knowledge graphs entities lack such textual descriptions. In this paper, we introduce a dynamic memory-based network that generates a short open vocabulary description of an entity by jointly leveraging induced fact embeddings as well as the dynamic context of the generated sequence of words. We demonstrate the ability of our architecture to discern relevant information for more accurate generation of type description by pitting the system against several strong baselines.