Rajaswa Patil


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Program Synthesis for Complex QA on Charts via Probabilistic Grammar Based Filtered Iterative Back-Translation
Shabbirhussain Bhaisaheb | Shubham Paliwal | Rajaswa Patil | Manasi Patwardhan | Lovekesh Vig | Gautam Shroff
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EACL 2023

Answering complex reasoning questions from chart images is a challenging problem requiring a combination of natural language understanding, fine-grained perception, and analytical reasoning. Current chart-based Question Answering (QA) approaches largely address structural, visual or simple data retrieval-type questions with fixed-vocabulary answers and perform poorly on reasoning queries. We focus on answering realistic, complex, reasoning-based questions where the answer needs to be computed and not selected from a fixed set of choices. Our approach employs a neural semantic parser to transform Natural Language (NL) questions into SQL programs and execute them on a standardized schema populated from the extracted chart contents. In the absence of program annotations, i.e., in a weak supervision setting, we obtain initial SQL predictions from a pre-trained CodeT5 semantic parser and employ Filtered Iterative Back-Translation (FIBT) for iteratively augmenting our NL-SQL training set. The forward (neural semantic parser) and backward (language model) models are initially trained with an external NL-SQL dataset. We iteratively move towards the NL query distribution by generating NL questions from the synthesized SQL programs using a Probabilistic Context-Free Grammar (PCFG) where the production rule probabilities are induced to be inversely proportional to the probabilities in the training data. We filter out the generated NL queries with mismatched structures and compositions. Our FIBT approach achieves State-of-the-Art (SOTA) results on reasoning-based queries in the PlotQA dataset yielding a test accuracy of 60.44%, superseding the previous baselines by a large margin.


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Vyākarana: A Colorless Green Benchmark for Syntactic Evaluation in Indic Languages
Rajaswa Patil | Jasleen Dhillon | Siddhant Mahurkar | Saumitra Kulkarni | Manav Malhotra | Veeky Baths
Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Multilingual Representation Learning

While there has been significant progress towards developing NLU resources for Indic languages, syntactic evaluation has been relatively less explored. Unlike English, Indic languages have rich morphosyntax, grammatical genders, free linear word-order, and highly inflectional morphology. In this paper, we introduce Vyākarana: a benchmark of Colorless Green sentences in Indic languages for syntactic evaluation of multilingual language models. The benchmark comprises four syntax-related tasks: PoS Tagging, Syntax Tree-depth Prediction, Grammatical Case Marking, and Subject-Verb Agreement. We use the datasets from the evaluation tasks to probe five multilingual language models of varying architectures for syntax in Indic languages. Due to its prevalence, we also include a code-switching setting in our experiments. Our results show that the token-level and sentence-level representations from the Indic language models (IndicBERT and MuRIL) do not capture the syntax in Indic languages as efficiently as the other highly multilingual language models. Further, our layer-wise probing experiments reveal that while mBERT, DistilmBERT, and XLM-R localize the syntax in middle layers, the Indic language models do not show such syntactic localization.

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DRIFT: A Toolkit for Diachronic Analysis of Scientific Literature
Abheesht Sharma | Gunjan Chhablani | Harshit Pandey | Rajaswa Patil
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing: System Demonstrations

In this work, we present to the NLP community, and to the wider research community as a whole, an application for the diachronic analysis of research corpora. We open source an easy-to-use tool coined DRIFT, which allows researchers to track research trends and development over the years. The analysis methods are collated from well-cited research works, with a few of our own methods added for good measure. Succinctly put, some of the analysis methods are: keyword extraction, word clouds, predicting declining/stagnant/growing trends using Productivity, tracking bi-grams using Acceleration plots, finding the Semantic Drift of words, tracking trends using similarity, etc. To demonstrate the utility and efficacy of our tool, we perform a case study on the cs.CL corpus of the arXiv repository and draw inferences from the analysis methods. The toolkit and the associated code are available here: https://github.com/rajaswa/DRIFT.


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CNRL at SemEval-2020 Task 5: Modelling Causal Reasoning in Language with Multi-Head Self-Attention Weights Based Counterfactual Detection
Rajaswa Patil | Veeky Baths
Proceedings of the Fourteenth Workshop on Semantic Evaluation

In this paper, we describe an approach for modelling causal reasoning in natural language by detecting counterfactuals in text using multi-head self-attention weights. We use pre-trained transformer models to extract contextual embeddings and self-attention weights from the text. We show the use of convolutional layers to extract task-specific features from these self-attention weights. Further, we describe a fine-tuning approach with a common base model for knowledge sharing between the two closely related sub-tasks for counterfactual detection. We analyze and compare the performance of various transformer models in our experiments. Finally, we perform a qualitative analysis with the multi-head self-attention weights to interpret our models’ dynamics.

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LRG at SemEval-2020 Task 7: Assessing the Ability of BERT and Derivative Models to Perform Short-Edits Based Humor Grading
Siddhant Mahurkar | Rajaswa Patil
Proceedings of the Fourteenth Workshop on Semantic Evaluation

In this paper, we assess the ability of BERT and its derivative models (RoBERTa, DistilBERT, and ALBERT) for short-edits based humor grading. We test these models for humor grading and classification tasks on the Humicroedit and the FunLines dataset. We perform extensive experiments with these models to test their language modeling and generalization abilities via zero-shot inference and cross-dataset inference based approaches. Further, we also inspect the role of self-attention layers in humor-grading by performing a qualitative analysis over the self-attention weights from the final layer of the trained BERT model. Our experiments show that all the pre-trained BERT derivative models show significant generalization capabilities for humor-grading related tasks.

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BPGC at SemEval-2020 Task 11: Propaganda Detection in News Articles with Multi-Granularity Knowledge Sharing and Linguistic Features Based Ensemble Learning
Rajaswa Patil | Somesh Singh | Swati Agarwal
Proceedings of the Fourteenth Workshop on Semantic Evaluation

Propaganda spreads the ideology and beliefs of like-minded people, brainwashing their audiences, and sometimes leading to violence. SemEval 2020 Task-11 aims to design automated systems for news propaganda detection. Task-11 consists of two sub-tasks, namely, Span Identification - given any news article, the system tags those specific fragments which contain at least one propaganda technique; and Technique Classification - correctly classify a given propagandist statement amongst 14 propaganda techniques. For sub-task 1, we use contextual embeddings extracted from pre-trained transformer models to represent the text data at various granularities and propose a multi-granularity knowledge sharing approach. For sub-task 2, we use an ensemble of BERT and logistic regression classifiers with linguistic features. Our results reveal that the linguistic features are the strong indicators for covering minority classes in a highly imbalanced dataset.