Rajiv Shah

Also published as: Rajiv Ratn Shah


2021

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GupShup: Summarizing Open-Domain Code-Switched Conversations
Laiba Mehnaz | Debanjan Mahata | Rakesh Gosangi | Uma Sushmitha Gunturi | Riya Jain | Gauri Gupta | Amardeep Kumar | Isabelle G. Lee | Anish Acharya | Rajiv Ratn Shah
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Code-switching is the communication phenomenon where the speakers switch between different languages during a conversation. With the widespread adoption of conversational agents and chat platforms, code-switching has become an integral part of written conversations in many multi-lingual communities worldwide. Therefore, it is essential to develop techniques for understanding and summarizing these conversations. Towards this objective, we introduce the task of abstractive summarization of Hindi-English (Hi-En) code-switched conversations. We also develop the first code-switched conversation summarization dataset - GupShup, which contains over 6,800 Hi-En conversations and their corresponding human-annotated summaries in English (En) and Hi-En. We present a detailed account of the entire data collection and annotation process. We analyze the dataset using various code-switching statistics. We train state-of-the-art abstractive summarization models and report their performances using both automated metrics and human evaluation. Our results show that multi-lingual mBART and multi-view seq2seq models obtain the best performances on this new dataset. We also conduct an extensive qualitative analysis to provide insight into the models and some of their shortcomings.

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Multimodal Multi-Speaker Merger & Acquisition Financial Modeling: A New Task, Dataset, and Neural Baselines
Ramit Sawhney | Mihir Goyal | Prakhar Goel | Puneet Mathur | Rajiv Ratn Shah
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Risk prediction is an essential task in financial markets. Merger and Acquisition (M&A) calls provide key insights into the claims made by company executives about the restructuring of the financial firms. Extracting vocal and textual cues from M&A calls can help model the risk associated with such financial activities. To aid the analysis of M&A calls, we curate a dataset of conference call transcripts and their corresponding audio recordings for the time period ranging from 2016 to 2020. We introduce M3ANet, a baseline architecture that takes advantage of the multimodal multi-speaker input to forecast the financial risk associated with the M&A calls. Empirical results prove that the task is challenging, with the pro-posed architecture performing marginally better than strong BERT-based baselines. We release the M3A dataset and benchmark models to motivate future research on this challenging problem domain.

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FAST: Financial News and Tweet Based Time Aware Network for Stock Trading
Ramit Sawhney | Arnav Wadhwa | Shivam Agarwal | Rajiv Ratn Shah
Proceedings of the 16th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Main Volume

Designing profitable trading strategies is complex as stock movements are highly stochastic; the market is influenced by large volumes of noisy data across diverse information sources like news and social media. Prior work mostly treats stock movement prediction as a regression or classification task and is not directly optimized towards profit-making. Further, they do not model the fine-grain temporal irregularities in the release of vast volumes of text that the market responds to quickly. Building on these limitations, we propose a novel hierarchical, learning to rank approach that uses textual data to make time-aware predictions for ranking stocks based on expected profit. Our approach outperforms state-of-the-art methods by over 8% in terms of cumulative profit and risk-adjusted returns in trading simulations on two benchmarks: English tweets and Chinese financial news spanning two major stock indexes and four global markets. Through ablative and qualitative analyses, we build the case for our method as a tool for daily stock trading.

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PHASE: Learning Emotional Phase-aware Representations for Suicide Ideation Detection on Social Media
Ramit Sawhney | Harshit Joshi | Lucie Flek | Rajiv Ratn Shah
Proceedings of the 16th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Main Volume

Recent psychological studies indicate that individuals exhibiting suicidal ideation increasingly turn to social media rather than mental health practitioners. Contextualizing the build-up of such ideation is critical for the identification of users at risk. In this work, we focus on identifying suicidal intent in tweets by augmenting linguistic models with emotional phases modeled from users’ historical context. We propose PHASE, a time-and phase-aware framework that adaptively learns features from a user’s historical emotional spectrum on Twitter for preliminary screening of suicidal risk. Building on clinical studies, PHASE learns phase-like progressions in users’ historical Plutchik-wheel-based emotions to contextualize suicidal intent. While outperforming state-of-the-art methods, we show the utility of temporal and phase-based emotional contextual cues for suicide ideation detection. We further discuss practical and ethical considerations.

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Suicide Ideation Detection via Social and Temporal User Representations using Hyperbolic Learning
Ramit Sawhney | Harshit Joshi | Rajiv Ratn Shah | Lucie Flek
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Recent psychological studies indicate that individuals exhibiting suicidal ideation increasingly turn to social media rather than mental health practitioners. Personally contextualizing the buildup of such ideation is critical for accurate identification of users at risk. In this work, we propose a framework jointly leveraging a user’s emotional history and social information from a user’s neighborhood in a network to contextualize the interpretation of the latest tweet of a user on Twitter. Reflecting upon the scale-free nature of social network relationships, we propose the use of Hyperbolic Graph Convolution Networks, in combination with the Hawkes process to learn the historical emotional spectrum of a user in a time-sensitive manner. Our system significantly outperforms state-of-the-art methods on this task, showing the benefits of both socially and personally contextualized representations.

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An Empirical Investigation of Bias in the Multimodal Analysis of Financial Earnings Calls
Ramit Sawhney | Arshiya Aggarwal | Rajiv Ratn Shah
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Volatility prediction is complex due to the stock market’s stochastic nature. Existing research focuses on the textual elements of financial disclosures like earnings calls transcripts to forecast stock volatility and risk, but ignores the rich acoustic features in the company executives’ speech. Recently, new multimodal approaches that leverage the verbal and vocal cues of speakers in financial disclosures significantly outperform previous state-of-the-art approaches demonstrating the benefits of multimodality and speech. However, the financial realm is still plagued with a severe underrepresentation of various communities spanning diverse demographics, gender, and native speech. While multimodal models are better risk forecasters, it is imperative to also investigate the potential bias that these models may learn from the speech signals of company executives. In this work, we present the first study to discover the gender bias in multimodal volatility prediction due to gender-sensitive audio features and fewer female executives in earnings calls of one of the world’s biggest stock indexes, the S&P 500 index. We quantitatively analyze bias as error disparity and investigate the sources of this bias. Our results suggest that multimodal neural financial models accentuate gender-based stereotypes.

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Quantitative Day Trading from Natural Language using Reinforcement Learning
Ramit Sawhney | Arnav Wadhwa | Shivam Agarwal | Rajiv Ratn Shah
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

It is challenging to design profitable and practical trading strategies, as stock price movements are highly stochastic, and the market is heavily influenced by chaotic data across sources like news and social media. Existing NLP approaches largely treat stock prediction as a classification or regression problem and are not optimized to make profitable investment decisions. Further, they do not model the temporal dynamics of large volumes of diversely influential text to which the market responds quickly. Building on these shortcomings, we propose a deep reinforcement learning approach that makes time-aware decisions to trade stocks while optimizing profit using textual data. Our method outperforms state-of-the-art in terms of risk-adjusted returns in trading simulations on two benchmarks: Tweets (English) and financial news (Chinese) pertaining to two major indexes and four global stock markets. Through extensive experiments and studies, we build the case for our method as a tool for quantitative trading.

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Multitask Learning for Emotionally Analyzing Sexual Abuse Disclosures
Ramit Sawhney | Puneet Mathur | Taru Jain | Akash Kumar Gautam | Rajiv Ratn Shah
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

The #MeToo movement on social media platforms initiated discussions over several facets of sexual harassment in our society. Prior work by the NLP community for automated identification of the narratives related to sexual abuse disclosures barely explored this social phenomenon as an independent task. However, emotional attributes associated with textual conversations related to the #MeToo social movement are complexly intertwined with such narratives. We formulate the task of identifying narratives related to the sexual abuse disclosures in online posts as a joint modeling task that leverages their emotional attributes through multitask learning. Our results demonstrate that positive knowledge transfer via context-specific shared representations of a flexible cross-stitched parameter sharing model helps establish the inherent benefit of jointly modeling tasks related to sexual abuse disclosures with emotion classification from the text in homogeneous and heterogeneous settings. We show how for more domain-specific tasks related to sexual abuse disclosures such as sarcasm identification and dialogue act (refutation, justification, allegation) classification, homogeneous multitask learning is helpful, whereas for more general tasks such as stance and hate speech detection, heterogeneous multitask learning with emotion classification works better.

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Analyzing the Domain Robustness of Pretrained Language Models, Layer by Layer
Abhinav Ramesh Kashyap | Laiba Mehnaz | Bhavitvya Malik | Abdul Waheed | Devamanyu Hazarika | Min-Yen Kan | Rajiv Ratn Shah
Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Domain Adaptation for NLP

The robustness of pretrained language models(PLMs) is generally measured using performance drops on two or more domains. However, we do not yet understand the inherent robustness achieved by contributions from different layers of a PLM. We systematically analyze the robustness of these representations layer by layer from two perspectives. First, we measure the robustness of representations by using domain divergence between two domains. We find that i) Domain variance increases from the lower to the upper layers for vanilla PLMs; ii) Models continuously pretrained on domain-specific data (DAPT)(Gururangan et al., 2020) exhibit more variance than their pretrained PLM counterparts; and that iii) Distilled models (e.g., DistilBERT) also show greater domain variance. Second, we investigate the robustness of representations by analyzing the encoded syntactic and semantic information using diagnostic probes. We find that similar layers have similar amounts of linguistic information for data from an unseen domain.

2020

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Unsupervised Paraphasia Classification in Aphasic Speech
Sharan Pai | Nikhil Sachdeva | Prince Sachdeva | Rajiv Ratn Shah
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Student Research Workshop

Aphasia is a speech and language disorder which results from brain damage, often characterized by word retrieval deficit (anomia) resulting in naming errors (paraphasia). Automatic paraphasia detection has many benefits for both treatment and diagnosis of Aphasia and its type. But supervised learning methods cant be properly utilized as there is a lack of aphasic speech data. In this paper, we describe our novel unsupervised method which can be implemented without the need for labeled paraphasia data. Our evaluations show that our method outperforms previous work based on supervised learning and transfer learning approaches for English. We demonstrate the utility of our method as an essential first step in developing augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) devices for patients suffering from aphasia in any language.

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Semi-Supervised Iterative Approach for Domain-Specific Complaint Detection in Social Media
Akash Gautam | Debanjan Mahata | Rakesh Gosangi | Rajiv Ratn Shah
Proceedings of the 3rd Workshop on e-Commerce and NLP

In this paper, we present a semi-supervised bootstrapping approach to detect product or service related complaints in social media. Our approach begins with a small collection of annotated samples which are used to identify a preliminary set of linguistic indicators pertinent to complaints. These indicators are then used to expand the dataset. The expanded dataset is again used to extract more indicators. This process is applied for several iterations until we can no longer find any new indicators. We evaluated this approach on a Twitter corpus specifically to detect complaints about transportation services. We started with an annotated set of 326 samples of transportation complaints, and after four iterations of the approach, we collected 2,840 indicators and over 3,700 tweets. We annotated a random sample of 700 tweets from the final dataset and observed that nearly half the samples were actual transportation complaints. Lastly, we also studied how different features based on semantics, orthographic properties, and sentiment contribute towards the prediction of complaints.

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An Annotated Dataset of Discourse Modes in Hindi Stories
Swapnil Dhanwal | Hritwik Dutta | Hitesh Nankani | Nilay Shrivastava | Yaman Kumar | Junyi Jessy Li | Debanjan Mahata | Rakesh Gosangi | Haimin Zhang | Rajiv Ratn Shah | Amanda Stent
Proceedings of the Twelfth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

In this paper, we present a new corpus consisting of sentences from Hindi short stories annotated for five different discourse modes argumentative, narrative, descriptive, dialogic and informative. We present a detailed account of the entire data collection and annotation processes. The annotations have a very high inter-annotator agreement (0.87 k-alpha). We analyze the data in terms of label distributions, part of speech tags, and sentence lengths. We characterize the performance of various classification algorithms on this dataset and perform ablation studies to understand the nature of the linguistic models suitable for capturing the nuances of the embedded discourse structures in the presented corpus.

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MIDAS at SemEval-2020 Task 10: Emphasis Selection Using Label Distribution Learning and Contextual Embeddings
Sarthak Anand | Pradyumna Gupta | Hemant Yadav | Debanjan Mahata | Rakesh Gosangi | Haimin Zhang | Rajiv Ratn Shah
Proceedings of the Fourteenth Workshop on Semantic Evaluation

This paper presents our submission to the SemEval 2020 - Task 10 on emphasis selection in written text. We approach this emphasis selection problem as a sequence labeling task where we represent the underlying text with various contextual embedding models. We also employ label distribution learning to account for annotator disagreements. We experiment with the choice of model architectures, trainability of layers, and different contextual embeddings. Our best performing architecture is an ensemble of different models, which achieved an overall matching score of 0.783, placing us 15th out of 31 participating teams. Lastly, we analyze the results in terms of parts of speech tags, sentence lengths, and word ordering.

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GPolS: A Contextual Graph-Based Language Model for Analyzing Parliamentary Debates and Political Cohesion
Ramit Sawhney | Arnav Wadhwa | Shivam Agarwal | Rajiv Ratn Shah
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Parliamentary debates present a valuable language resource for analyzing comprehensive options in electing representatives under a functional, free society. However, the esoteric nature of political speech coupled with non-linguistic aspects such as political cohesion between party members presents a complex and underexplored task of contextual parliamentary debate analysis. We introduce GPolS, a neural model for political speech sentiment analysis jointly exploiting both semantic language representations and relations between debate transcripts, motions, and political party members. Through experiments on real-world English data and by visualizing attention, we provide a use case of GPolS as a tool for political speech analysis and polarity prediction.

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Augmenting NLP models using Latent Feature Interpolations
Amit Jindal | Arijit Ghosh Chowdhury | Aniket Didolkar | Di Jin | Ramit Sawhney | Rajiv Ratn Shah
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Models with a large number of parameters are prone to over-fitting and often fail to capture the underlying input distribution. We introduce Emix, a data augmentation method that uses interpolations of word embeddings and hidden layer representations to construct virtual examples. We show that Emix shows significant improvements over previously used interpolation based regularizers and data augmentation techniques. We also demonstrate how our proposed method is more robust to sparsification. We highlight the merits of our proposed methodology by performing thorough quantitative and qualitative assessments.

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A Time-Aware Transformer Based Model for Suicide Ideation Detection on Social Media
Ramit Sawhney | Harshit Joshi | Saumya Gandhi | Rajiv Ratn Shah
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Social media’s ubiquity fosters a space for users to exhibit suicidal thoughts outside of traditional clinical settings. Understanding the build-up of such ideation is critical for the identification of at-risk users and suicide prevention. Suicide ideation is often linked to a history of mental depression. The emotional spectrum of a user’s historical activity on social media can be indicative of their mental state over time. In this work, we focus on identifying suicidal intent in English tweets by augmenting linguistic models with historical context. We propose STATENet, a time-aware transformer based model for preliminary screening of suicidal risk on social media. STATENet outperforms competitive methods, demonstrating the utility of emotional and temporal contextual cues for suicide risk assessment. We discuss the empirical, qualitative, practical, and ethical aspects of STATENet for suicide ideation detection.

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VolTAGE: Volatility Forecasting via Text Audio Fusion with Graph Convolution Networks for Earnings Calls
Ramit Sawhney | Piyush Khanna | Arshiya Aggarwal | Taru Jain | Puneet Mathur | Rajiv Ratn Shah
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Natural language processing has recently made stock movement forecasting and volatility forecasting advances, leading to improved financial forecasting. Transcripts of companies’ earnings calls are well studied for risk modeling, offering unique investment insight into stock performance. However, vocal cues in the speech of company executives present an underexplored rich source of natural language data for estimating financial risk. Additionally, most existing approaches ignore the correlations between stocks. Building on existing work, we introduce a neural model for stock volatility prediction that accounts for stock interdependence via graph convolutions while fusing verbal, vocal, and financial features in a semi-supervised multi-task risk forecasting formulation. Our proposed model, VolTAGE, outperforms existing methods demonstrating the effectiveness of multimodal learning for volatility prediction.

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A Preliminary Exploration of GANs for Keyphrase Generation
Avinash Swaminathan | Haimin Zhang | Debanjan Mahata | Rakesh Gosangi | Rajiv Ratn Shah | Amanda Stent
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

We introduce a new keyphrase generation approach using Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs). For a given document, the generator produces a sequence of keyphrases, and the discriminator distinguishes between human-curated and machine-generated keyphrases. We evaluated this approach on standard benchmark datasets. We observed that our model achieves state-of-the-art performance in the generation of abstractive keyphrases and is comparable to the best performing extractive techniques. Although we achieve promising results using GANs, they are not significantly better than the state-of-the-art generative models. To our knowledge, this is one of the first works that use GANs for keyphrase generation. We present a detailed analysis of our observations and expect that these findings would help other researchers to further study the use of GANs for the task of keyphrase generation.

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Deep Attentive Learning for Stock Movement Prediction From Social Media Text and Company Correlations
Ramit Sawhney | Shivam Agarwal | Arnav Wadhwa | Rajiv Ratn Shah
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

In the financial domain, risk modeling and profit generation heavily rely on the sophisticated and intricate stock movement prediction task. Stock forecasting is complex, given the stochastic dynamics and non-stationary behavior of the market. Stock movements are influenced by varied factors beyond the conventionally studied historical prices, such as social media and correlations among stocks. The rising ubiquity of online content and knowledge mandates an exploration of models that factor in such multimodal signals for accurate stock forecasting. We introduce an architecture that achieves a potent blend of chaotic temporal signals from financial data, social media, and inter-stock relationships via a graph neural network in a hierarchical temporal fashion. Through experiments on real-world S&P 500 index data and English tweets, we show the practical applicability of our model as a tool for investment decision making and trading.

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Two-Step Classification using Recasted Data for Low Resource Settings
Shagun Uppal | Vivek Gupta | Avinash Swaminathan | Haimin Zhang | Debanjan Mahata | Rakesh Gosangi | Rajiv Ratn Shah | Amanda Stent
Proceedings of the 1st Conference of the Asia-Pacific Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 10th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing

An NLP model’s ability to reason should be independent of language. Previous works utilize Natural Language Inference (NLI) to understand the reasoning ability of models, mostly focusing on high resource languages like English. To address scarcity of data in low-resource languages such as Hindi, we use data recasting to create NLI datasets for four existing text classification datasets. Through experiments, we show that our recasted dataset is devoid of statistical irregularities and spurious patterns. We further study the consistency in predictions of the textual entailment models and propose a consistency regulariser to remove pairwise-inconsistencies in predictions. We propose a novel two-step classification method which uses textual-entailment predictions for classification task. We further improve the performance by using a joint-objective for classification and textual entailment. We therefore highlight the benefits of data recasting and improvements on classification performance using our approach with supporting experimental results.

2019

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MIDAS at SemEval-2019 Task 6: Identifying Offensive Posts and Targeted Offense from Twitter
Debanjan Mahata | Haimin Zhang | Karan Uppal | Yaman Kumar | Rajiv Ratn Shah | Simra Shahid | Laiba Mehnaz | Sarthak Anand
Proceedings of the 13th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation

In this paper we present our approach and the system description for Sub Task A and Sub Task B of SemEval 2019 Task 6: Identifying and Categorizing Offensive Language in Social Media. Sub Task A involves identifying if a given tweet is offensive and Sub Task B involves detecting if an offensive tweet is targeted towards someone (group or an individual). Our models for Sub Task A is based on an ensemble of Convolutional Neural Network and Bidirectional LSTM, whereas for Sub Task B, we rely on a set of heuristics derived from the training data. We provide detailed analysis of the results obtained using the trained models. Our team ranked 5th out of 103 participants in Sub Task A, achieving a macro F1 score of 0.807, and ranked 8th out of 75 participants achieving a macro F1 of 0.695.

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MIDAS at SemEval-2019 Task 9: Suggestion Mining from Online Reviews using ULMFit
Sarthak Anand | Debanjan Mahata | Kartik Aggarwal | Laiba Mehnaz | Simra Shahid | Haimin Zhang | Yaman Kumar | Rajiv Shah | Karan Uppal
Proceedings of the 13th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation

In this paper we present our approach to tackle the Suggestion Mining from Online Reviews and Forums Sub-Task A. Given a review, we are asked to predict whether the review consists of a suggestion or not. Our model is based on Universal Language Model Fine-tuning for Text Classification. We apply various pre-processing techniques before training the language and the classification model. We further provide analysis of the model. Our team ranked 10th out of 34 participants, achieving an F1 score of 0.7011.

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MIDAS@SMM4H-2019: Identifying Adverse Drug Reactions and Personal Health Experience Mentions from Twitter
Debanjan Mahata | Sarthak Anand | Haimin Zhang | Simra Shahid | Laiba Mehnaz | Yaman Kumar | Rajiv Ratn Shah
Proceedings of the Fourth Social Media Mining for Health Applications (#SMM4H) Workshop & Shared Task

In this paper, we present our approach and the system description for the Social Media Mining for Health Applications (SMM4H) Shared Task 1,2 and 4 (2019). Our main contribution is to show the effectiveness of Transfer Learning approaches like BERT and ULMFiT, and how they generalize for the classification tasks like identification of adverse drug reaction mentions and reporting of personal health problems in tweets. We show the use of stacked embeddings combined with BLSTM+CRF tagger for identifying spans mentioning adverse drug reactions in tweets. We also show that these approaches perform well even with imbalanced dataset in comparison to undersampling and oversampling.

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#YouToo? Detection of Personal Recollections of Sexual Harassment on Social Media
Arijit Ghosh Chowdhury | Ramit Sawhney | Rajiv Ratn Shah | Debanjan Mahata
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

The availability of large-scale online social data, coupled with computational methods can help us answer fundamental questions relat- ing to our social lives, particularly our health and well-being. The #MeToo trend has led to people talking about personal experiences of harassment more openly. This work at- tempts to aggregate such experiences of sex- ual abuse to facilitate a better understanding of social media constructs and to bring about social change. It has been found that disclo- sure of abuse has positive psychological im- pacts. Hence, we contend that such informa- tion can leveraged to create better campaigns for social change by analyzing how users react to these stories and to obtain a better insight into the consequences of sexual abuse. We use a three part Twitter-Specific Social Media Lan- guage Model to segregate personal recollec- tions of sexual harassment from Twitter posts. An extensive comparison with state-of-the-art generic and specific models along with a de- tailed error analysis explores the merit of our proposed model.

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ARHNet - Leveraging Community Interaction for Detection of Religious Hate Speech in Arabic
Arijit Ghosh Chowdhury | Aniket Didolkar | Ramit Sawhney | Rajiv Ratn Shah
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Student Research Workshop

The rapid widespread of social media has lead to some undesirable consequences like the rapid increase of hateful content and offensive language. Religious Hate Speech, in particular, often leads to unrest and sometimes aggravates to violence against people on the basis of their religious affiliations. The richness of the Arabic morphology and the limited available resources makes this task especially challenging. The current state-of-the-art approaches to detect hate speech in Arabic rely entirely on textual (lexical and semantic) cues. Our proposed methodology contends that leveraging Community-Interaction can better help us profile hate speech content on social media. Our proposed ARHNet (Arabic Religious Hate Speech Net) model incorporates both Arabic Word Embeddings and Social Network Graphs for the detection of religious hate speech.

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Investigating Political Herd Mentality: A Community Sentiment Based Approach
Anjali Bhavan | Rohan Mishra | Pradyumna Prakhar Sinha | Ramit Sawhney | Rajiv Ratn Shah
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Student Research Workshop

Analyzing polarities and sentiments inherent in political speeches and debates poses an important problem today. This experiment aims to address this issue by analyzing publicly-available Hansard transcripts of the debates conducted in the UK Parliament. Our proposed approach, which uses community-based graph information to augment hand-crafted features based on topic modeling and emotion detection on debate transcripts, currently surpasses the benchmark results on the same dataset. Such sentiment classification systems could prove to be of great use in today’s politically turbulent times, for public knowledge of politicians’ stands on various relevant issues proves vital for good governance and citizenship. The experiments also demonstrate that continuous feature representations learned from graphs can improve performance on sentiment classification tasks significantly.

2018

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Detecting Offensive Tweets in Hindi-English Code-Switched Language
Puneet Mathur | Rajiv Shah | Ramit Sawhney | Debanjan Mahata
Proceedings of the Sixth International Workshop on Natural Language Processing for Social Media

The exponential rise of social media websites like Twitter, Facebook and Reddit in linguistically diverse geographical regions has led to hybridization of popular native languages with English in an effort to ease communication. The paper focuses on the classification of offensive tweets written in Hinglish language, which is a portmanteau of the Indic language Hindi with the Roman script. The paper introduces a novel tweet dataset, titled Hindi-English Offensive Tweet (HEOT) dataset, consisting of tweets in Hindi-English code switched language split into three classes: non-offensive, abusive and hate-speech. Further, we approach the problem of classification of the tweets in HEOT dataset using transfer learning wherein the proposed model employing Convolutional Neural Networks is pre-trained on tweets in English followed by retraining on Hinglish tweets.

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Did you offend me? Classification of Offensive Tweets in Hinglish Language
Puneet Mathur | Ramit Sawhney | Meghna Ayyar | Rajiv Shah
Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Abusive Language Online (ALW2)

The use of code-switched languages (e.g., Hinglish, which is derived by the blending of Hindi with the English language) is getting much popular on Twitter due to their ease of communication in native languages. However, spelling variations and absence of grammar rules introduce ambiguity and make it difficult to understand the text automatically. This paper presents the Multi-Input Multi-Channel Transfer Learning based model (MIMCT) to detect offensive (hate speech or abusive) Hinglish tweets from the proposed Hinglish Offensive Tweet (HOT) dataset using transfer learning coupled with multiple feature inputs. Specifically, it takes multiple primary word embedding along with secondary extracted features as inputs to train a multi-channel CNN-LSTM architecture that has been pre-trained on English tweets through transfer learning. The proposed MIMCT model outperforms the baseline supervised classification models, transfer learning based CNN and LSTM models to establish itself as the state of the art in the unexplored domain of Hinglish offensive text classification.

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Identification of Emergency Blood Donation Request on Twitter
Puneet Mathur | Meghna Ayyar | Sahil Chopra | Simra Shahid | Laiba Mehnaz | Rajiv Shah
Proceedings of the 2018 EMNLP Workshop SMM4H: The 3rd Social Media Mining for Health Applications Workshop & Shared Task

Social media-based text mining in healthcare has received special attention in recent times due to the enhanced accessibility of social media sites like Twitter. The increasing trend of spreading important information in distress can help patients reach out to prospective blood donors in a time bound manner. However such manual efforts are mostly inefficient due to the limited network of a user. In a novel step to solve this problem, we present an annotated Emergency Blood Donation Request (EBDR) dataset to classify tweets referring to the necessity of urgent blood donation requirement. Additionally, we also present an automated feature-based SVM classification technique that can help selective EBDR tweets reach relevant personals as well as medical authorities. Our experiments also present a quantitative evidence that linguistic along with handcrafted heuristics can act as the most representative set of signals this task with an accuracy of 97.89%.

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Exploring and Learning Suicidal Ideation Connotations on Social Media with Deep Learning
Ramit Sawhney | Prachi Manchanda | Puneet Mathur | Rajiv Shah | Raj Singh
Proceedings of the 9th Workshop on Computational Approaches to Subjectivity, Sentiment and Social Media Analysis

The increasing suicide rates amongst youth and its high correlation with suicidal ideation expression on social media warrants a deeper investigation into models for the detection of suicidal intent in text such as tweets to enable prevention. However, the complexity of the natural language constructs makes this task very challenging. Deep Learning architectures such as LSTMs, CNNs, and RNNs show promise in sentence level classification problems. This work investigates the ability of deep learning architectures to build an accurate and robust model for suicidal ideation detection and compares their performance with standard baselines in text classification problems. The experimental results reveal the merit in C-LSTM based models as compared to other deep learning and machine learning based classification models for suicidal ideation detection.

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Key2Vec: Automatic Ranked Keyphrase Extraction from Scientific Articles using Phrase Embeddings
Debanjan Mahata | John Kuriakose | Rajiv Ratn Shah | Roger Zimmermann
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 2 (Short Papers)

Keyphrase extraction is a fundamental task in natural language processing that facilitates mapping of documents to a set of representative phrases. In this paper, we present an unsupervised technique (Key2Vec) that leverages phrase embeddings for ranking keyphrases extracted from scientific articles. Specifically, we propose an effective way of processing text documents for training multi-word phrase embeddings that are used for thematic representation of scientific articles and ranking of keyphrases extracted from them using theme-weighted PageRank. Evaluations are performed on benchmark datasets producing state-of-the-art results.