As large Pre-trained Language Models (PLMs) trained on large amounts of data in an unsupervised manner become more ubiquitous, identifying various types of bias in the text has come into sharp focus. Existing ‘Stereotype Detection’ datasets mainly adopt a diagnostic approach toward large PLMs. Blodgett et. al. (2021) show that there are significant reliability issues with the existing benchmark datasets. Annotating a reliable dataset requires a precise understanding of the subtle nuances of how stereotypes manifest in text. In this paper, we annotate a focused evaluation set for ‘Stereotype Detection’ that addresses those pitfalls by de-constructing various ways in which stereotypes manifest in text. Further, we present a multi-task model that leverages the abundance of data-rich neighboring tasks such as hate speech detection, offensive language detection, misogyny detection, etc., to improve the empirical performance on ‘Stereotype Detection’. We then propose a reinforcement-learning agent that guides the multi-task learning model by learning to identify the training examples from the neighboring tasks that help the target task the most. We show that the proposed models achieve significant empirical gains over existing baselines on all the tasks.
Politicians often have underlying agendas when reacting to events. Arguments in contexts of various events reflect a fairly consistent set of agendas for a given entity. In spite of recent advances in Pretrained Language Models, those text representations are not designed to capture such nuanced patterns. In this paper, we propose a Compositional Reader model consisting of encoder and composer modules, that captures and leverages such information to generate more effective representations for entities, issues, and events. These representations are contextualized by tweets, press releases, issues, news articles, and participating entities. Our model processes several documents at once and generates composed representations for multiple entities over several issues or events. Via qualitative and quantitative empirical analysis, we show that these representations are meaningful and effective.
While evaluating an answer choice for Reading Comprehension task, other answer choices available for the question and the answers of related questions about the same paragraph often provide valuable information. In this paper, we propose a method to leverage the natural language relations between the answer choices, such as entailment and contradiction, to improve the performance of machine comprehension. We use a stand-alone question answering (QA) system to perform QA task and a Natural Language Inference (NLI) system to identify the relations between the choice pairs. Then we perform inference using an Integer Linear Programming (ILP)-based relational framework to re-evaluate the decisions made by the standalone QA system in light of the relations identified by the NLI system. We also propose a multitask learning model that learns both the tasks jointly.
In this paper, we propose a hybrid technique for semantic question matching. It uses a proposed two-layered taxonomy for English questions by augmenting state-of-the-art deep learning models with question classes obtained from a deep learning based question classifier. Experiments performed on three open-domain datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed approach. We achieve state-of-the-art results on partial ordering question ranking (POQR) benchmark dataset. Our empirical analysis shows that coupling standard distributional features (provided by the question encoder) with knowledge from taxonomy is more effective than either deep learning or taxonomy-based knowledge alone.