Rami Aly


2022

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Proceedings of the Fifth Fact Extraction and VERification Workshop (FEVER)
Rami Aly | Christos Christodoulopoulos | Oana Cocarascu | Zhijiang Guo | Arpit Mittal | Michael Schlichtkrull | James Thorne | Andreas Vlachos
Proceedings of the Fifth Fact Extraction and VERification Workshop (FEVER)

2021

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Proceedings of the Fourth Workshop on Fact Extraction and VERification (FEVER)
Rami Aly | Christos Christodoulopoulos | Oana Cocarascu | Zhijiang Guo | Arpit Mittal | Michael Schlichtkrull | James Thorne | Andreas Vlachos
Proceedings of the Fourth Workshop on Fact Extraction and VERification (FEVER)

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The Fact Extraction and VERification Over Unstructured and Structured information (FEVEROUS) Shared Task
Rami Aly | Zhijiang Guo | Michael Sejr Schlichtkrull | James Thorne | Andreas Vlachos | Christos Christodoulopoulos | Oana Cocarascu | Arpit Mittal
Proceedings of the Fourth Workshop on Fact Extraction and VERification (FEVER)

The Fact Extraction and VERification Over Unstructured and Structured information (FEVEROUS) shared task, asks participating systems to determine whether human-authored claims are Supported or Refuted based on evidence retrieved from Wikipedia (or NotEnoughInfo if the claim cannot be verified). Compared to the FEVER 2018 shared task, the main challenge is the addition of structured data (tables and lists) as a source of evidence. The claims in the FEVEROUS dataset can be verified using only structured evidence, only unstructured evidence, or a mixture of both. Submissions are evaluated using the FEVEROUS score that combines label accuracy and evidence retrieval. Unlike FEVER 2018, FEVEROUS requires partial evidence to be returned for NotEnoughInfo claims, and the claims are longer and thus more complex. The shared task received 13 entries, six of which were able to beat the baseline system. The winning team was “Bust a move!”, achieving a FEVEROUS score of 27% (+9% compared to the baseline). In this paper we describe the shared task, present the full results and highlight commonalities and innovations among the participating systems.

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Leveraging Type Descriptions for Zero-shot Named Entity Recognition and Classification
Rami Aly | Andreas Vlachos | Ryan McDonald
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

A common issue in real-world applications of named entity recognition and classification (NERC) is the absence of annotated data for the target entity classes during training. Zero-shot learning approaches address this issue by learning models from classes with training data that can predict classes without it. This paper presents the first approach for zero-shot NERC, introducing novel architectures that leverage the fact that textual descriptions for many entity classes occur naturally. We address the zero-shot NERC specific challenge that the not-an-entity class is not well defined as different entity classes are considered in training and testing. For evaluation, we adapt two datasets, OntoNotes and MedMentions, emulating the difficulty of real-world zero-shot learning by testing models on the rarest entity classes. Our proposed approach outperforms baselines adapted from machine reading comprehension and zero-shot text classification. Furthermore, we assess the effect of different class descriptions for this task.

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Efficient Unsupervised NMT for Related Languages with Cross-Lingual Language Models and Fidelity Objectives
Rami Aly | Andrew Caines | Paula Buttery
Proceedings of the Eighth Workshop on NLP for Similar Languages, Varieties and Dialects

The most successful approach to Neural Machine Translation (NMT) when only monolingual training data is available, called unsupervised machine translation, is based on back-translation where noisy translations are generated to turn the task into a supervised one. However, back-translation is computationally very expensive and inefficient. This work explores a novel, efficient approach to unsupervised NMT. A transformer, initialized with cross-lingual language model weights, is fine-tuned exclusively on monolingual data of the target language by jointly learning on a paraphrasing and denoising autoencoder objective. Experiments are conducted on WMT datasets for German-English, French-English, and Romanian-English. Results are competitive to strong baseline unsupervised NMT models, especially for closely related source languages (German) compared to more distant ones (Romanian, French), while requiring about a magnitude less training time.

2019

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Every Child Should Have Parents: A Taxonomy Refinement Algorithm Based on Hyperbolic Term Embeddings
Rami Aly | Shantanu Acharya | Alexander Ossa | Arne Köhn | Chris Biemann | Alexander Panchenko
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

We introduce the use of Poincaré embeddings to improve existing state-of-the-art approaches to domain-specific taxonomy induction from text as a signal for both relocating wrong hyponym terms within a (pre-induced) taxonomy as well as for attaching disconnected terms in a taxonomy. This method substantially improves previous state-of-the-art results on the SemEval-2016 Task 13 on taxonomy extraction. We demonstrate the superiority of Poincaré embeddings over distributional semantic representations, supporting the hypothesis that they can better capture hierarchical lexical-semantic relationships than embeddings in the Euclidean space.

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Hierarchical Multi-label Classification of Text with Capsule Networks
Rami Aly | Steffen Remus | Chris Biemann
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Student Research Workshop

Capsule networks have been shown to demonstrate good performance on structured data in the area of visual inference. In this paper we apply and compare simple shallow capsule networks for hierarchical multi-label text classification and show that they can perform superior to other neural networks, such as CNNs and LSTMs, and non-neural network architectures such as SVMs. For our experiments, we use the established Web of Science (WOS) dataset and introduce a new real-world scenario dataset, the BlurbGenreCollection (BGC). Our results confirm the hypothesis that capsule networks are especially advantageous for rare events and structurally diverse categories, which we attribute to their ability to combine latent encoded information.