Raphael Olivier


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Sequential Randomized Smoothing for Adversarially Robust Speech Recognition
Raphael Olivier | Bhiksha Raj
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

While Automatic Speech Recognition has been shown to be vulnerable to adversarial attacks, defenses against these attacks are still lagging. Existing, naive defenses can be partially broken with an adaptive attack. In classification tasks, the Randomized Smoothing paradigm has been shown to be effective at defending models. However, it is difficult to apply this paradigm to ASR tasks, due to their complexity and the sequential nature of their outputs. Our paper overcomes some of these challenges by leveraging speech-specific tools like enhancement and ROVER voting to design an ASR model that is robust to perturbations. We apply adaptive versions of state-of-the-art attacks, such as the Imperceptible ASR attack, to our model, and show that our strongest defense is robust to all attacks that use inaudible noise, and can only be broken with very high distortion.


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Retrieval-Based Neural Code Generation
Shirley Anugrah Hayati | Raphael Olivier | Pravalika Avvaru | Pengcheng Yin | Anthony Tomasic | Graham Neubig
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

In models to generate program source code from natural language, representing this code in a tree structure has been a common approach. However, existing methods often fail to generate complex code correctly due to a lack of ability to memorize large and complex structures. We introduce RECODE, a method based on subtree retrieval that makes it possible to explicitly reference existing code examples within a neural code generation model. First, we retrieve sentences that are similar to input sentences using a dynamic-programming-based sentence similarity scoring method. Next, we extract n-grams of action sequences that build the associated abstract syntax tree. Finally, we increase the probability of actions that cause the retrieved n-gram action subtree to be in the predicted code. We show that our approach improves the performance on two code generation tasks by up to +2.6 BLEU.