Ricardo Rei


2023

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Onception: Active Learning with Expert Advice for Real World Machine Translation
Vânia Mendonça | Ricardo Rei | Luísa Coheur | Alberto Sardinha
Computational Linguistics, Volume 49, Issue 2 - June 2023

Active learning can play an important role in low-resource settings (i.e., where annotated data is scarce), by selecting which instances may be more worthy to annotate. Most active learning approaches for Machine Translation assume the existence of a pool of sentences in a source language, and rely on human annotators to provide translations or post-edits, which can still be costly. In this article, we apply active learning to a real-world human-in-the-loop scenario in which we assume that: (1) the source sentences may not be readily available, but instead arrive in a stream; (2) the automatic translations receive feedback in the form of a rating, instead of a correct/edited translation, since the human-in-the-loop might be a user looking for a translation, but not be able to provide one. To tackle the challenge of deciding whether each incoming pair source–translations is worthy to query for human feedback, we resort to a number of stream-based active learning query strategies. Moreover, because we do not know in advance which query strategy will be the most adequate for a certain language pair and set of Machine Translation models, we propose to dynamically combine multiple strategies using prediction with expert advice. Our experiments on different language pairs and feedback settings show that using active learning allows us to converge on the best Machine Translation systems with fewer human interactions. Furthermore, combining multiple strategies using prediction with expert advice outperforms several individual active learning strategies with even fewer interactions, particularly in partial feedback settings.

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The Inside Story: Towards Better Understanding of Machine Translation Neural Evaluation Metrics
Ricardo Rei | Nuno M. Guerreiro | Marcos Treviso | Luisa Coheur | Alon Lavie | André Martins
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)

Neural metrics for machine translation evaluation, such as COMET, exhibit significant improvements in their correlation with human judgments, as compared to traditional metrics based on lexical overlap, such as BLEU. Yet, neural metrics are, to a great extent, “black boxes” returning a single sentence-level score without transparency about the decision-making process. In this work, we develop and compare several neural explainability methods and demonstrate their effectiveness for interpreting state-of-the-art fine-tuned neural metrics. Our study reveals that these metrics leverage token-level information that can be directly attributed to translation errors, as assessed through comparison of token-level neural saliency maps with Multidimensional Quality Metrics (MQM) annotations and with synthetically-generated critical translation errors. To ease future research, we release our code at: https://github.com/Unbabel/COMET/tree/explainable-metrics

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Steering Large Language Models for Machine Translation with Finetuning and In-Context Learning
Duarte Alves | Nuno Guerreiro | João Alves | José Pombal | Ricardo Rei | José de Souza | Pierre Colombo | Andre Martins
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Large language models (LLMs) are a promising avenue for machine translation (MT). However, current LLM-based MT systems are brittle: their effectiveness highly depends on the choice of few-shot examples and they often require extra post-processing due to overgeneration. Alternatives such as finetuning on translation instructions are computationally expensive and may weaken in-context learning capabilities, due to overspecialization. In this paper, we provide a closer look at this problem. We start by showing that adapter-based finetuning with LoRA matches the performance of traditional finetuning while reducing the number of training parameters by a factor of 50. This method also outperforms few-shot prompting and eliminates the need for post-processing or in-context examples. However, we show that finetuning generally degrades few-shot performance, hindering adaptation capabilities. Finally, to obtain the best of both worlds, we propose a simple approach that incorporates few-shot examples during finetuning. Experiments on 10 language pairs show that our proposed approach recovers the original few-shot capabilities while keeping the added benefits of finetuning.

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Results of WMT23 Metrics Shared Task: Metrics Might Be Guilty but References Are Not Innocent
Markus Freitag | Nitika Mathur | Chi-kiu Lo | Eleftherios Avramidis | Ricardo Rei | Brian Thompson | Tom Kocmi | Frederic Blain | Daniel Deutsch | Craig Stewart | Chrysoula Zerva | Sheila Castilho | Alon Lavie | George Foster
Proceedings of the Eighth Conference on Machine Translation

This paper presents the results of the WMT23 Metrics Shared Task. Participants submitting automatic MT evaluation metrics were asked to score the outputs of the translation systems competing in the WMT23 News Translation Task. All metrics were evaluated on how well they correlate with human ratings at the system and segment level. Similar to last year, we acquired our own human ratings based on expert-based human evaluation via Multidimensional Quality Metrics (MQM). Following last year’s success, we also included a challenge set subtask, where participants had to create contrastive test suites for evaluating metrics’ ability to capture and penalise specific types of translation errors. Furthermore, we improved our meta-evaluation procedure by considering fewer tasks and calculating a global score by weighted averaging across the various tasks. We present an extensive analysis on how well metrics perform on three language pairs: Chinese-English, Hebrew-English on the sentence-level and English-German on the paragraph-level. The results strongly confirm the results reported last year, that neural-based metrics are significantly better than non-neural metrics in their levels of correlation with human judgments. Further, we investigate the impact of bad reference translations on the correlations of metrics with human judgment. We present a novel approach for generating synthetic reference translations based on the collection of MT system outputs and their corresponding MQM ratings, which has the potential to mitigate bad reference issues we observed this year for some language pairs. Finally, we also study the connections between the magnitude of metric differences and their expected significance in human evaluation, which should help the community to better understand and adopt new metrics.

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Findings of the WMT 2023 Shared Task on Quality Estimation
Frederic Blain | Chrysoula Zerva | Ricardo Rei | Nuno M. Guerreiro | Diptesh Kanojia | José G. C. de Souza | Beatriz Silva | Tânia Vaz | Yan Jingxuan | Fatemeh Azadi | Constantin Orasan | André Martins
Proceedings of the Eighth Conference on Machine Translation

We report the results of the WMT 2023 shared task on Quality Estimation, in which the challenge is to predict the quality of the output of neural machine translation systems at the word and sentence levels, without access to reference translations. This edition introduces a few novel aspects and extensions that aim to enable more fine-grained, and explainable quality estimation approaches. We introduce an updated quality annotation scheme using Multidimensional Quality Metrics to obtain sentence- and word-level quality scores for three language pairs. We also extend the provided data to new language pairs: we specifically target low-resource languages and provide training, development and test data for English-Hindi, English-Tamil, English-Telegu and English-Gujarati as well as a zero-shot test-set for English-Farsi. Further, we introduce a novel fine-grained error prediction task aspiring to motivate research towards more detailed quality predictions.

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Scaling up CometKiwi: Unbabel-IST 2023 Submission for the Quality Estimation Shared Task
Ricardo Rei | Nuno M. Guerreiro | José Pombal | Daan van Stigt | Marcos Treviso | Luisa Coheur | José G. C. de Souza | André Martins
Proceedings of the Eighth Conference on Machine Translation

We present the joint contribution of Unbabel and Instituto Superior Técnico to the WMT 2023 Shared Task on Quality Estimation (QE). Our team participated on all tasks: Sentence- and Word-level Quality Prediction and Fine-grained error span detection. For all tasks we build on the CometKiwi model (rei et al. 2022). Our multilingual approaches are ranked first for all tasks, reaching state-of-the-art performance for quality estimation at word-, span- and sentence-level granularity. Compared to the previous state-of-the-art, CometKiwi, we show large improvements in correlation with human judgements (up to 10 Spearman points) and surpassing the second-best multilingual submission with up to 3.8 absolute points.

2022

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Searching for COMETINHO: The Little Metric That Could
Ricardo Rei | Ana C Farinha | José G.C. de Souza | Pedro G. Ramos | André F.T. Martins | Luisa Coheur | Alon Lavie
Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the European Association for Machine Translation

In recent years, several neural fine-tuned machine translation evaluation metrics such as COMET and BLEURT have been proposed. These metrics achieve much higher correlations with human judgments than lexical overlap metrics at the cost of computational efficiency and simplicity, limiting their applications to scenarios in which one has to score thousands of translation hypothesis (e.g. scoring multiple systems or Minimum Bayes Risk decoding). In this paper, we explore optimization techniques, pruning, and knowledge distillation to create more compact and faster COMET versions. Our results show that just by optimizing the code through the use of caching and length batching we can reduce inference time between 39% and 65% when scoring multiple systems. Also, we show that pruning COMET can lead to a 21% model reduction without affecting the model’s accuracy beyond 0.01 Kendall tau correlation. Furthermore, we present DISTIL-COMET a lightweight distilled version that is 80% smaller and 2.128x faster while attaining a performance close to the original model and above strong baselines such as BERTSCORE and PRISM.

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QUARTZ: Quality-Aware Machine Translation
José G.C. de Souza | Ricardo Rei | Ana C. Farinha | Helena Moniz | André F. T. Martins
Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the European Association for Machine Translation

This paper presents QUARTZ, QUality-AwaRe machine Translation, a project led by Unbabel which aims at developing machine translation systems that are more robust and produce fewer critical errors. With QUARTZ we want to enable machine translation for user-generated conversational content types that do not tolerate critical errors in automatic translations.

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Results of WMT22 Metrics Shared Task: Stop Using BLEU – Neural Metrics Are Better and More Robust
Markus Freitag | Ricardo Rei | Nitika Mathur | Chi-kiu Lo | Craig Stewart | Eleftherios Avramidis | Tom Kocmi | George Foster | Alon Lavie | André F. T. Martins
Proceedings of the Seventh Conference on Machine Translation (WMT)

This paper presents the results of the WMT22 Metrics Shared Task. Participants submitting automatic MT evaluation metrics were asked to score the outputs of the translation systems competing in the WMT22 News Translation Task on four different domains: news, social, ecommerce, and chat. All metrics were evaluated on how well they correlate with human ratings at the system and segment level. Similar to last year, we acquired our own human ratings based on expert-based human evaluation via Multidimensional Quality Metrics (MQM). This setup had several advantages, among other things: (i) expert-based evaluation is more reliable, (ii) we extended the pool of translations by 5 additional translations based on MBR decoding or rescoring which are challenging for current metrics. In addition, we initiated a challenge set subtask, where participants had to create contrastive test suites for evaluating metrics’ ability to capture and penalise specific types of translation errors. Finally, we present an extensive analysis on how well metrics perform on three language pairs: English to German, English to Russian and Chinese to English. The results demonstrate the superiority of neural-based learned metrics and demonstrate again that overlap metrics like Bleu, spBleu or chrf correlate poorly with human ratings. The results also reveal that neural-based metrics are remarkably robust across different domains and challenges.

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Findings of the WMT 2022 Shared Task on Quality Estimation
Chrysoula Zerva | Frédéric Blain | Ricardo Rei | Piyawat Lertvittayakumjorn | José G. C. de Souza | Steffen Eger | Diptesh Kanojia | Duarte Alves | Constantin Orăsan | Marina Fomicheva | André F. T. Martins | Lucia Specia
Proceedings of the Seventh Conference on Machine Translation (WMT)

We report the results of the WMT 2022 shared task on Quality Estimation, in which the challenge is to predict the quality of the output of neural machine translation systems at the word and sentence levels, without access to reference translations. This edition introduces a few novel aspects and extensions that aim to enable more fine-grained, and explainable quality estimation approaches. We introduce an updated quality annotation scheme using Multidimensional Quality Metrics to obtain sentence- and word-level quality scores for three language pairs. We also extend the Direct Assessments and post-edit data (MLQE-PE) to new language pairs: we present a novel and large dataset on English-Marathi, as well as a zero-shot test set on English-Yoruba. Further, we include an explainability sub-task for all language pairs and present a new format of a critical error detection task for two new language pairs. Participants from 11 different teams submitted altogether 991 systems to different task variants and language pairs.

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Robust MT Evaluation with Sentence-level Multilingual Augmentation
Duarte Alves | Ricardo Rei | Ana C Farinha | José G. C. de Souza | André F. T. Martins
Proceedings of the Seventh Conference on Machine Translation (WMT)

Automatic translations with critical errors may lead to misinterpretations and pose several risks for the user. As such, it is important that Machine Translation (MT) Evaluation systems are robust to these errors in order to increase the reliability and safety of Machine Translation systems. Here we introduce SMAUG a novel Sentence-level Multilingual AUGmentation approach for generating translations with critical errors and apply this approach to create a test set to evaluate the robustness of MT metrics to these errors. We show that current State-of-the-Art metrics are improving their capability to distinguish translations with and without critical errors and to penalize the first accordingly. We also show that metrics tend to struggle with errors related to named entities and numbers and that there is a high variance in the robustness of current methods to translations with critical errors.

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COMET-22: Unbabel-IST 2022 Submission for the Metrics Shared Task
Ricardo Rei | José G. C. de Souza | Duarte Alves | Chrysoula Zerva | Ana C Farinha | Taisiya Glushkova | Alon Lavie | Luisa Coheur | André F. T. Martins
Proceedings of the Seventh Conference on Machine Translation (WMT)

In this paper, we present the joint contribution of Unbabel and IST to the WMT 2022 Metrics Shared Task. Our primary submission – dubbed COMET-22 – is an ensemble between a COMET estimator model trained with Direct Assessments and a newly proposed multitask model trained to predict sentence-level scores along with OK/BAD word-level tags derived from Multidimensional Quality Metrics error annotations. These models are ensembled together using a hyper-parameter search that weights different features extracted from both evaluation models and combines them into a single score. For the reference-free evaluation, we present CometKiwi. Similarly to our primary submission, CometKiwi is an ensemble between two models. A traditional predictor-estimator model inspired by OpenKiwi and our new multitask model trained on Multidimensional Quality Metrics which can also be used without references. Both our submissions show improved correlations compared to state-of-the-art metrics from last year as well as increased robustness to critical errors.

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CometKiwi: IST-Unbabel 2022 Submission for the Quality Estimation Shared Task
Ricardo Rei | Marcos Treviso | Nuno M. Guerreiro | Chrysoula Zerva | Ana C Farinha | Christine Maroti | José G. C. de Souza | Taisiya Glushkova | Duarte Alves | Luisa Coheur | Alon Lavie | André F. T. Martins
Proceedings of the Seventh Conference on Machine Translation (WMT)

We present the joint contribution of IST and Unbabel to the WMT 2022 Shared Task on Quality Estimation (QE). Our team participated in all three subtasks: (i) Sentence and Word-level Quality Prediction; (ii) Explainable QE; and (iii) Critical Error Detection. For all tasks we build on top of the COMET framework, connecting it with the predictor-estimator architecture of OpenKiwi, and equipping it with a word-level sequence tagger and an explanation extractor. Our results suggest that incorporating references during pretraining improves performance across several language pairs on downstream tasks, and that jointly training with sentence and word-level objectives yields a further boost. Furthermore, combining attention and gradient information proved to be the top strategy for extracting good explanations of sentence-level QE models. Overall, our submissions achieved the best results for all three tasks for almost all language pairs by a considerable margin.

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Disentangling Uncertainty in Machine Translation Evaluation
Chrysoula Zerva | Taisiya Glushkova | Ricardo Rei | André F. T. Martins
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Trainable evaluation metrics for machine translation (MT) exhibit strong correlation with human judgements, but they are often hard to interpret and might produce unreliable scores under noisy or out-of-domain data. Recent work has attempted to mitigate this with simple uncertainty quantification techniques (Monte Carlo dropout and deep ensembles), however these techniques (as we show) are limited in several ways – for example, they are unable to distinguish between different kinds of uncertainty, and they are time and memory consuming. In this paper, we propose more powerful and efficient uncertainty predictors for MT evaluation, and we assess their ability to target different sources of aleatoric and epistemic uncertainty. To this end, we develop and compare training objectives for the COMET metric to enhance it with an uncertainty prediction output, including heteroscedastic regression, divergence minimization, and direct uncertainty prediction. Our experiments show improved results on uncertainty prediction for the WMT metrics task datasets, with a substantial reduction in computational costs. Moreover, they demonstrate the ability of these predictors to address specific uncertainty causes in MT evaluation, such as low quality references and out-of-domain data.

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Quality-Aware Decoding for Neural Machine Translation
Patrick Fernandes | António Farinhas | Ricardo Rei | José G. C. de Souza | Perez Ogayo | Graham Neubig | Andre Martins
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Despite the progress in machine translation quality estimation and evaluation in the last years, decoding in neural machine translation (NMT) is mostly oblivious to this and centers around finding the most probable translation according to the model (MAP decoding), approximated with beam search. In this paper, we bring together these two lines of research and propose quality-aware decoding for NMT, by leveraging recent breakthroughs in reference-free and reference-based MT evaluation through various inference methods like N-best reranking and minimum Bayes risk decoding. We perform an extensive comparison of various possible candidate generation and ranking methods across four datasets and two model classes and find that quality-aware decoding consistently outperforms MAP-based decoding according both to state-of-the-art automatic metrics (COMET and BLEURT) and to human assessments.

2021

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Multilingual Email Zoning
Bruno Jardim | Ricardo Rei | Mariana S. C. Almeida
Proceedings of the 16th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Student Research Workshop

The segmentation of emails into functional zones (also dubbed email zoning) is a relevant preprocessing step for most NLP tasks that deal with emails. However, despite the multilingual character of emails and their applications, previous literature regarding email zoning corpora and systems was developed essentially for English. In this paper, we analyse the existing email zoning corpora and propose a new multilingual benchmark composed of 625 emails in Portuguese, Spanish and French. Moreover, we introduce OKAPI, the first multilingual email segmentation model based on a language agnostic sentence encoder. Besides generalizing well for unseen languages, our model is competitive with current English benchmarks, and reached new state-of-the-art performances for domain adaptation tasks in English.

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Online Learning Meets Machine Translation Evaluation: Finding the Best Systems with the Least Human Effort
Vânia Mendonça | Ricardo Rei | Luisa Coheur | Alberto Sardinha | Ana Lúcia Santos
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

In Machine Translation, assessing the quality of a large amount of automatic translations can be challenging. Automatic metrics are not reliable when it comes to high performing systems. In addition, resorting to human evaluators can be expensive, especially when evaluating multiple systems. To overcome the latter challenge, we propose a novel application of online learning that, given an ensemble of Machine Translation systems, dynamically converges to the best systems, by taking advantage of the human feedback available. Our experiments on WMT’19 datasets show that our online approach quickly converges to the top-3 ranked systems for the language pairs considered, despite the lack of human feedback for many translations.

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MT-Telescope: An interactive platform for contrastive evaluation of MT systems
Ricardo Rei | Ana C Farinha | Craig Stewart | Luisa Coheur | Alon Lavie
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing: System Demonstrations

We present MT-Telescope, a visualization platform designed to facilitate comparative analysis of the output quality of two Machine Translation (MT) systems. While automated MT evaluation metrics are commonly used to evaluate MT systems at a corpus-level, our platform supports fine-grained segment-level analysis and interactive visualisations that expose the fundamental differences in the performance of the compared systems. MT-Telescope also supports dynamic corpus filtering to enable focused analysis on specific phenomena such as; translation of named entities, handling of terminology, and the impact of input segment length on translation quality. Furthermore, the platform provides a bootstrapped t-test for statistical significance as a means of evaluating the rigor of the resulting system ranking. MT-Telescope is open source, written in Python, and is built around a user friendly and dynamic web interface. Complementing other existing tools, our platform is designed to facilitate and promote the broader adoption of more rigorous analysis practices in the evaluation of MT quality.

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IST-Unbabel 2021 Submission for the Explainable Quality Estimation Shared Task
Marcos Treviso | Nuno M. Guerreiro | Ricardo Rei | André F. T. Martins
Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Evaluation and Comparison of NLP Systems

We present the joint contribution of Instituto Superior Técnico (IST) and Unbabel to the Explainable Quality Estimation (QE) shared task, where systems were submitted to two tracks: constrained (without word-level supervision) and unconstrained (with word-level supervision). For the constrained track, we experimented with several explainability methods to extract the relevance of input tokens from sentence-level QE models built on top of multilingual pre-trained transformers. Among the different tested methods, composing explanations in the form of attention weights scaled by the norm of value vectors yielded the best results. When word-level labels are used during training, our best results were obtained by using word-level predicted probabilities. We further improve the performance of our methods on the two tracks by ensembling explanation scores extracted from models trained with different pre-trained transformers, achieving strong results for in-domain and zero-shot language pairs.

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Results of the WMT21 Metrics Shared Task: Evaluating Metrics with Expert-based Human Evaluations on TED and News Domain
Markus Freitag | Ricardo Rei | Nitika Mathur | Chi-kiu Lo | Craig Stewart | George Foster | Alon Lavie | Ondřej Bojar
Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Machine Translation

This paper presents the results of the WMT21 Metrics Shared Task. Participants were asked to score the outputs of the translation systems competing in the WMT21 News Translation Task with automatic metrics on two different domains: news and TED talks. All metrics were evaluated on how well they correlate at the system- and segment-level with human ratings. Contrary to previous years’ editions, this year we acquired our own human ratings based on expert-based human evaluation via Multidimensional Quality Metrics (MQM). This setup had several advantages: (i) expert-based evaluation has been shown to be more reliable, (ii) we were able to evaluate all metrics on two different domains using translations of the same MT systems, (iii) we added 5 additional translations coming from the same system during system development. In addition, we designed three challenge sets that evaluate the robustness of all automatic metrics. We present an extensive analysis on how well metrics perform on three language pairs: English to German, English to Russian and Chinese to English. We further show the impact of different reference translations on reference-based metrics and compare our expert-based MQM annotation with the DA scores acquired by WMT.

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IST-Unbabel 2021 Submission for the Quality Estimation Shared Task
Chrysoula Zerva | Daan van Stigt | Ricardo Rei | Ana C Farinha | Pedro Ramos | José G. C. de Souza | Taisiya Glushkova | Miguel Vera | Fabio Kepler | André F. T. Martins
Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Machine Translation

We present the joint contribution of IST and Unbabel to the WMT 2021 Shared Task on Quality Estimation. Our team participated on two tasks: Direct Assessment and Post-Editing Effort, encompassing a total of 35 submissions. For all submissions, our efforts focused on training multilingual models on top of OpenKiwi predictor-estimator architecture, using pre-trained multilingual encoders combined with adapters. We further experiment with and uncertainty-related objectives and features as well as training on out-of-domain direct assessment data.

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Are References Really Needed? Unbabel-IST 2021 Submission for the Metrics Shared Task
Ricardo Rei | Ana C Farinha | Chrysoula Zerva | Daan van Stigt | Craig Stewart | Pedro Ramos | Taisiya Glushkova | André F. T. Martins | Alon Lavie
Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Machine Translation

In this paper, we present the joint contribution of Unbabel and IST to the WMT 2021 Metrics Shared Task. With this year’s focus on Multidimensional Quality Metric (MQM) as the ground-truth human assessment, our aim was to steer COMET towards higher correlations with MQM. We do so by first pre-training on Direct Assessments and then fine-tuning on z-normalized MQM scores. In our experiments we also show that reference-free COMET models are becoming competitive with reference-based models, even outperforming the best COMET model from 2020 on this year’s development data. Additionally, we present COMETinho, a lightweight COMET model that is 19x faster on CPU than the original model, while also achieving state-of-the-art correlations with MQM. Finally, in the “QE as a metric” track, we also participated with a QE model trained using the OpenKiwi framework leveraging MQM scores and word-level annotations.

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Uncertainty-Aware Machine Translation Evaluation
Taisiya Glushkova | Chrysoula Zerva | Ricardo Rei | André F. T. Martins
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2021

Several neural-based metrics have been recently proposed to evaluate machine translation quality. However, all of them resort to point estimates, which provide limited information at segment level. This is made worse as they are trained on noisy, biased and scarce human judgements, often resulting in unreliable quality predictions. In this paper, we introduce uncertainty-aware MT evaluation and analyze the trustworthiness of the predicted quality. We combine the COMET framework with two uncertainty estimation methods, Monte Carlo dropout and deep ensembles, to obtain quality scores along with confidence intervals. We compare the performance of our uncertainty-aware MT evaluation methods across multiple language pairs from the QT21 dataset and the WMT20 metrics task, augmented with MQM annotations. We experiment with varying numbers of references and further discuss the usefulness of uncertainty-aware quality estimation (without references) to flag possibly critical translation mistakes.

2020

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COMET: A Neural Framework for MT Evaluation
Ricardo Rei | Craig Stewart | Ana C Farinha | Alon Lavie
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

We present COMET, a neural framework for training multilingual machine translation evaluation models which obtains new state-of-the-art levels of correlation with human judgements. Our framework leverages recent breakthroughs in cross-lingual pretrained language modeling resulting in highly multilingual and adaptable MT evaluation models that exploit information from both the source input and a target-language reference translation in order to more accurately predict MT quality. To showcase our framework, we train three models with different types of human judgements: Direct Assessments, Human-mediated Translation Edit Rate and Multidimensional Quality Metric. Our models achieve new state-of-the-art performance on the WMT 2019 Metrics shared task and demonstrate robustness to high-performing systems.

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Unbabel’s Participation in the WMT20 Metrics Shared Task
Ricardo Rei | Craig Stewart | Ana C Farinha | Alon Lavie
Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Machine Translation

We present the contribution of the Unbabel team to the WMT 2020 Shared Task on Metrics. We intend to participate on the segmentlevel, document-level and system-level tracks on all language pairs, as well as the “QE as a Metric” track. Accordingly, we illustrate results of our models in these tracks with reference to test sets from the previous year. Our submissions build upon the recently proposed COMET framework: we train several estimator models to regress on different humangenerated quality scores and a novel ranking model trained on relative ranks obtained from Direct Assessments. We also propose a simple technique for converting segment-level predictions into a document-level score. Overall, our systems achieve strong results for all language pairs on previous test sets and in many cases set a new state-of-the-art.

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COMET - Deploying a New State-of-the-art MT Evaluation Metric in Production
Craig Stewart | Ricardo Rei | Catarina Farinha | Alon Lavie
Proceedings of the 14th Conference of the Association for Machine Translation in the Americas (Volume 2: User Track)