Richard Tobin


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Not a cute stroke: Analysis of Rule- and Neural Network-based Information Extraction Systems for Brain Radiology Reports
Andreas Grivas | Beatrice Alex | Claire Grover | Richard Tobin | William Whiteley
Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Health Text Mining and Information Analysis

We present an in-depth comparison of three clinical information extraction (IE) systems designed to perform entity recognition and negation detection on brain imaging reports: EdIE-R, a bespoke rule-based system, and two neural network models, EdIE-BiLSTM and EdIE-BERT, both multi-task learning models with a BiLSTM and BERT encoder respectively. We compare our models both on an in-sample and an out-of-sample dataset containing mentions of stroke findings and draw on our error analysis to suggest improvements for effective annotation when building clinical NLP models for a new domain. Our analysis finds that our rule-based system outperforms the neural models on both datasets and seems to generalise to the out-of-sample dataset. On the other hand, the neural models do not generalise negation to the out-of-sample dataset, despite metrics on the in-sample dataset suggesting otherwise.


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Homing in on Twitter Users: Evaluating an Enhanced Geoparser for User Profile Locations
Beatrice Alex | Clare Llewellyn | Claire Grover | Jon Oberlander | Richard Tobin
Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'16)

Twitter-related studies often need to geo-locate Tweets or Twitter users, identifying their real-world geographic locations. As tweet-level geotagging remains rare, most prior work exploited tweet content, timezone and network information to inform geolocation, or else relied on off-the-shelf tools to geolocate users from location information in their user profiles. However, such user location metadata is not consistently structured, causing such tools to fail regularly, especially if a string contains multiple locations, or if locations are very fine-grained. We argue that user profile location (UPL) and tweet location need to be treated as distinct types of information from which differing inferences can be drawn. Here, we apply geoparsing to UPLs, and demonstrate how task performance can be improved by adapting our Edinburgh Geoparser, which was originally developed for processing English text. We present a detailed evaluation method and results, including inter-coder agreement. We demonstrate that the optimised geoparser can effectively extract and geo-reference multiple locations at different levels of granularity with an F1-score of around 0.90. We also illustrate how geoparsed UPLs can be exploited for international information trade studies and country-level sentiment analysis.


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A Gazetteer and Georeferencing for Historical English Documents
Claire Grover | Richard Tobin
Proceedings of the 8th Workshop on Language Technology for Cultural Heritage, Social Sciences, and Humanities (LaTeCH)

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A Web-based Geo-resolution Annotation and Evaluation Tool
Beatrice Alex | Kate Byrne | Claire Grover | Richard Tobin
Proceedings of LAW VIII - The 8th Linguistic Annotation Workshop


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Edinburgh-LTG: TempEval-2 System Description
Claire Grover | Richard Tobin | Beatrice Alex | Kate Byrne
Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation


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Named Entity Recognition for Digitised Historical Texts
Claire Grover | Sharon Givon | Richard Tobin | Julian Ball
Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'08)

We describe and evaluate a prototype system for recognising person and place names in digitised records of British parliamentary proceedings from the late 17th and early 19th centuries. The output of an OCR engine is the input for our system and we describe certain issues and errors in this data and discuss the methods we have used to overcome the problems. We describe our rule-based named entity recognition system for person and place names which is implemented using the LT-XML2 and LT-TTT2 text processing tools. We discuss the annotation of a development and testing corpus and provide results of an evaluation of our system on the test corpus.


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Tools to Address the Interdependence between Tokenisation and Standoff Annotation
Claire Grover | Michael Matthews | Richard Tobin
Proceedings of the 5th Workshop on NLP and XML (NLPXML-2006): Multi-Dimensional Markup in Natural Language Processing

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Rule-Based Chunking and Reusability
Claire Grover | Richard Tobin
Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC’06)

In this paper we discuss a rule-based approach to chunking implemented using the LT-XML2 and LT-TTT2 tools. We describe the tools and the pipeline and grammars that have been developed for the task of chunking. We show that our rule-based approach is easy to adapt to different chunking styles and that the mark-up of further linguistic information such as nominal and verbal heads can be added to the rules at little extra cost. We evaluate our chunker against the CoNLL 2000 data and discuss discrepancies between our output and the CoNLL mark-up as well as discrepancies within the CoNLL data itself. We contrast our results with the higher scores obtained using machine learning and argue that the portability and flexibility of our approach still make it a more practical solution.