Robert J. Hendley

Also published as: Robert Hendley


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Arabic Emoji Sentiment Lexicon (Arab-ESL): A Comparison between Arabic and European Emoji Sentiment Lexicons
Shatha Ali A. Hakami | Robert Hendley | Phillip Smith
Proceedings of the Sixth Arabic Natural Language Processing Workshop

Emoji (the popular digital pictograms) are sometimes seen as a new kind of artificial and universally usable and consistent writing code. In spite of their assumed universality, there is some evidence that the sense of an emoji, specifically in regard to sentiment, may change from language to language and culture to culture. This paper investigates whether contextual emoji sentiment analysis is consistent across Arabic and European languages. To conduct this investigation, we, first, created the Arabic emoji sentiment lexicon (Arab-ESL). Then, we exploited an existing European emoji sentiment lexicon to compare the sentiment conveyed in each of the two families of language and culture (Arabic and European). The results show that the pairwise correlation between the two lexicons is consistent for emoji that represent, for instance, hearts, facial expressions, and body language. However, for a subset of emoji (those that represent objects, nature, symbols, and some human activities), there are large differences in the sentiment conveyed. More interestingly, an extremely high level of inconsistency has been shown with food emoji.


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Don’t worry about metaphor: affect detection for conversational agents
Catherine Smith | Timothy Rumbell | John Barnden | Robert Hendley | Mark Lee | Alan Wallington | Li Zhang
Proceedings of the 45th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics Companion Volume Proceedings of the Demo and Poster Sessions


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Developments in Affect Detection in E-drama
Li Zhang | John A. Barnden | Robert J. Hendley | Alan M. Wallington

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Exploitation in Affect Detection in Open-Ended Improvisational Text
Li Zhang | John A. Barnden | Robert J. Hendley | Alan M. Wallington
Proceedings of the Workshop on Sentiment and Subjectivity in Text