Robin Kurtz


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Superlim: A Swedish Language Understanding Evaluation Benchmark
Aleksandrs Berdicevskis | Gerlof Bouma | Robin Kurtz | Felix Morger | Joey Öhman | Yvonne Adesam | Lars Borin | Dana Dannélls | Markus Forsberg | Tim Isbister | Anna Lindahl | Martin Malmsten | Faton Rekathati | Magnus Sahlgren | Elena Volodina | Love Börjeson | Simon Hengchen | Nina Tahmasebi
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

We present Superlim, a multi-task NLP benchmark and analysis platform for evaluating Swedish language models, a counterpart to the English-language (Super)GLUE suite. We describe the dataset, the tasks, the leaderboard and report the baseline results yielded by a reference implementation. The tested models do not approach ceiling performance on any of the tasks, which suggests that Superlim is truly difficult, a desirable quality for a benchmark. We address methodological challenges, such as mitigating the Anglocentric bias when creating datasets for a less-resourced language; choosing the most appropriate measures; documenting the datasets and making the leaderboard convenient and transparent. We also highlight other potential usages of the dataset, such as, for instance, the evaluation of cross-lingual transfer learning.


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Direct parsing to sentiment graphs
David Samuel | Jeremy Barnes | Robin Kurtz | Stephan Oepen | Lilja Øvrelid | Erik Velldal
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)

This paper demonstrates how a graph-based semantic parser can be applied to the task of structured sentiment analysis, directly predicting sentiment graphs from text. We advance the state of the art on 4 out of 5 standard benchmark sets. We release the source code, models and predictions.


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Structured Sentiment Analysis as Dependency Graph Parsing
Jeremy Barnes | Robin Kurtz | Stephan Oepen | Lilja Øvrelid | Erik Velldal
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Structured sentiment analysis attempts to extract full opinion tuples from a text, but over time this task has been subdivided into smaller and smaller sub-tasks, e.g., target extraction or targeted polarity classification. We argue that this division has become counterproductive and propose a new unified framework to remedy the situation. We cast the structured sentiment problem as dependency graph parsing, where the nodes are spans of sentiment holders, targets and expressions, and the arcs are the relations between them. We perform experiments on five datasets in four languages (English, Norwegian, Basque, and Catalan) and show that this approach leads to strong improvements over state-of-the-art baselines. Our analysis shows that refining the sentiment graphs with syntactic dependency information further improves results.

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Negation in Norwegian: an annotated dataset
Petter Mæhlum | Jeremy Barnes | Robin Kurtz | Lilja Øvrelid | Erik Velldal
Proceedings of the 23rd Nordic Conference on Computational Linguistics (NoDaLiDa)

This paper introduces NorecNeg – the first annotated dataset of negation for Norwegian. Negation cues and their in-sentence scopes have been annotated across more than 11K sentences spanning more than 400 documents for a subset of the Norwegian Review Corpus (NoReC). In addition to providing in-depth discussion of the annotation guidelines, we also present a first set of benchmark results based on a graph-parsing approach.


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End-to-End Negation Resolution as Graph Parsing
Robin Kurtz | Stephan Oepen | Marco Kuhlmann
Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Parsing Technologies and the IWPT 2020 Shared Task on Parsing into Enhanced Universal Dependencies

We present a neural end-to-end architecture for negation resolution based on a formulation of the task as a graph parsing problem. Our approach allows for the straightforward inclusion of many types of graph-structured features without the need for representation-specific heuristics. In our experiments, we specifically gauge the usefulness of syntactic information for negation resolution. Despite the conceptual simplicity of our architecture, we achieve state-of-the-art results on the Conan Doyle benchmark dataset, including a new top result for our best model.


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Improving Semantic Dependency Parsing with Syntactic Features
Robin Kurtz | Daniel Roxbo | Marco Kuhlmann
Proceedings of the First NLPL Workshop on Deep Learning for Natural Language Processing

We extend a state-of-the-art deep neural architecture for semantic dependency parsing with features defined over syntactic dependency trees. Our empirical results show that only gold-standard syntactic information leads to consistent improvements in semantic parsing accuracy, and that the magnitude of these improvements varies with the specific combination of the syntactic and the semantic representation used. In contrast, automatically predicted syntax does not seem to help semantic parsing. Our error analysis suggests that there is a significant overlap between syntactic and semantic representations.


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Exploiting Structure in Parsing to 1-Endpoint-Crossing Graphs
Robin Kurtz | Marco Kuhlmann
Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Parsing Technologies

Deep dependency parsing can be cast as the search for maximum acyclic subgraphs in weighted digraphs. Because this search problem is intractable in the general case, we consider its restriction to the class of 1-endpoint-crossing (1ec) graphs, which has high coverage on standard data sets. Our main contribution is a characterization of 1ec graphs as a subclass of the graphs with pagenumber at most 3. Building on this we show how to extend an existing parsing algorithm for 1-endpoint-crossing trees to the full class. While the runtime complexity of the extended algorithm is polynomial in the length of the input sentence, it features a large constant, which poses a challenge for practical implementations.