Roee Aharoni


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TRUE: Re-evaluating Factual Consistency Evaluation
Or Honovich | Roee Aharoni | Jonathan Herzig | Hagai Taitelbaum | Doron Kukliansy | Vered Cohen | Thomas Scialom | Idan Szpektor | Avinatan Hassidim | Yossi Matias
Proceedings of the Second DialDoc Workshop on Document-grounded Dialogue and Conversational Question Answering

Grounded text generation systems often generate text that contains factual inconsistencies, hindering their real-world applicability. Automatic factual consistency evaluation may help alleviate this limitation by accelerating evaluation cycles, filtering inconsistent outputs and augmenting training data. While attracting increasing attention, such evaluation metrics are usually developed and evaluated in silo for a single task or dataset, slowing their adoption. Moreover, previous meta-evaluation protocols focused on system-level correlations with human annotations, which leave the example-level accuracy of such metrics unclear.In this work, we introduce TRUE: a comprehensive study of factual consistency metrics on a standardized collection of existing texts from diverse tasks, manually annotated for factual consistency. Our standardization enables an example-level meta-evaluation protocol that is more actionable and interpretable than previously reported correlations, yielding clearer quality measures. Across diverse state-of-the-art metrics and 11 datasets we find that large-scale NLI and question generation-and-answering-based approaches achieve strong and complementary results. We recommend those methods as a starting point for model and metric developers, and hope TRUE will foster progress towards even better methods.


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Q2: Evaluating Factual Consistency in Knowledge-Grounded Dialogues via Question Generation and Question Answering
Or Honovich | Leshem Choshen | Roee Aharoni | Ella Neeman | Idan Szpektor | Omri Abend
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Neural knowledge-grounded generative models for dialogue often produce content that is factually inconsistent with the knowledge they rely on, making them unreliable and limiting their applicability. Inspired by recent work on evaluating factual consistency in abstractive summarization, we propose an automatic evaluation metric for factual consistency in knowledge-grounded dialogue using automatic question generation and question answering. Our metric, denoted Q2, compares answer spans using natural language inference (NLI), instead of token-based matching as done in previous work. To foster proper evaluation, we curate a novel dataset of dialogue system outputs for the Wizard-of-Wikipedia dataset, manually annotated for factual consistency. We perform a thorough meta-evaluation of Q2 against other metrics using this dataset and two others, where it consistently shows higher correlation with human judgements.


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Unsupervised Domain Clusters in Pretrained Language Models
Roee Aharoni | Yoav Goldberg
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

The notion of “in-domain data” in NLP is often over-simplistic and vague, as textual data varies in many nuanced linguistic aspects such as topic, style or level of formality. In addition, domain labels are many times unavailable, making it challenging to build domain-specific systems. We show that massive pre-trained language models implicitly learn sentence representations that cluster by domains without supervision – suggesting a simple data-driven definition of domains in textual data. We harness this property and propose domain data selection methods based on such models, which require only a small set of in-domain monolingual data. We evaluate our data selection methods for neural machine translation across five diverse domains, where they outperform an established approach as measured by both BLEU and precision and recall with respect to an oracle selection.

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KoBE: Knowledge-Based Machine Translation Evaluation
Zorik Gekhman | Roee Aharoni | Genady Beryozkin | Markus Freitag | Wolfgang Macherey
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

We propose a simple and effective method for machine translation evaluation which does not require reference translations. Our approach is based on (1) grounding the entity mentions found in each source sentence and candidate translation against a large-scale multilingual knowledge base, and (2) measuring the recall of the grounded entities found in the candidate vs. those found in the source. Our approach achieves the highest correlation with human judgements on 9 out of the 18 language pairs from the WMT19 benchmark for evaluation without references, which is the largest number of wins for a single evaluation method on this task. On 4 language pairs, we also achieve higher correlation with human judgements than BLEU. To foster further research, we release a dataset containing 1.8 million grounded entity mentions across 18 language pairs from the WMT19 metrics track data.


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Diversify Your Datasets: Analyzing Generalization via Controlled Variance in Adversarial Datasets
Ohad Rozen | Vered Shwartz | Roee Aharoni | Ido Dagan
Proceedings of the 23rd Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning (CoNLL)

Phenomenon-specific “adversarial” datasets have been recently designed to perform targeted stress-tests for particular inference types. Recent work (Liu et al., 2019a) proposed that such datasets can be utilized for training NLI and other types of models, often allowing to learn the phenomenon in focus and improve on the challenge dataset, indicating a “blind spot” in the original training data. Yet, although a model can improve in such a training process, it might still be vulnerable to other challenge datasets targeting the same phenomenon but drawn from a different distribution, such as having a different syntactic complexity level. In this work, we extend this method to drive conclusions about a model’s ability to learn and generalize a target phenomenon rather than to “learn” a dataset, by controlling additional aspects in the adversarial datasets. We demonstrate our approach on two inference phenomena – dative alternation and numerical reasoning, elaborating, and in some cases contradicting, the results of Liu et al.. Our methodology enables building better challenge datasets for creating more robust models, and may yield better model understanding and subsequent overarching improvements.

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Filling Gender & Number Gaps in Neural Machine Translation with Black-box Context Injection
Amit Moryossef | Roee Aharoni | Yoav Goldberg
Proceedings of the First Workshop on Gender Bias in Natural Language Processing

When translating from a language that does not morphologically mark information such as gender and number into a language that does, translation systems must “guess” this missing information, often leading to incorrect translations in the given context. We propose a black-box approach for injecting the missing information to a pre-trained neural machine translation system, allowing to control the morphological variations in the generated translations without changing the underlying model or training data. We evaluate our method on an English to Hebrew translation task, and show that it is effective in injecting the gender and number information and that supplying the correct information improves the translation accuracy in up to 2.3 BLEU on a female-speaker test set for a state-of-the-art online black-box system. Finally, we perform a fine-grained syntactic analysis of the generated translations that shows the effectiveness of our method.

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Massively Multilingual Neural Machine Translation
Roee Aharoni | Melvin Johnson | Orhan Firat
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long and Short Papers)

Multilingual Neural Machine Translation enables training a single model that supports translation from multiple source languages into multiple target languages. We perform extensive experiments in training massively multilingual NMT models, involving up to 103 distinct languages and 204 translation directions simultaneously. We explore different setups for training such models and analyze the trade-offs between translation quality and various modeling decisions. We report results on the publicly available TED talks multilingual corpus where we show that massively multilingual many-to-many models are effective in low resource settings, outperforming the previous state-of-the-art while supporting up to 59 languages in 116 translation directions in a single model. Our experiments on a large-scale dataset with 103 languages, 204 trained directions and up to one million examples per direction also show promising results, surpassing strong bilingual baselines and encouraging future work on massively multilingual NMT.


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Split and Rephrase: Better Evaluation and Stronger Baselines
Roee Aharoni | Yoav Goldberg
Proceedings of the 56th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)

Splitting and rephrasing a complex sentence into several shorter sentences that convey the same meaning is a challenging problem in NLP. We show that while vanilla seq2seq models can reach high scores on the proposed benchmark (Narayan et al., 2017), they suffer from memorization of the training set which contains more than 89% of the unique simple sentences from the validation and test sets. To aid this, we present a new train-development-test data split and neural models augmented with a copy-mechanism, outperforming the best reported baseline by 8.68 BLEU and fostering further progress on the task.


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Morphological Inflection Generation with Hard Monotonic Attention
Roee Aharoni | Yoav Goldberg
Proceedings of the 55th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

We present a neural model for morphological inflection generation which employs a hard attention mechanism, inspired by the nearly-monotonic alignment commonly found between the characters in a word and the characters in its inflection. We evaluate the model on three previously studied morphological inflection generation datasets and show that it provides state of the art results in various setups compared to previous neural and non-neural approaches. Finally we present an analysis of the continuous representations learned by both the hard and soft (Bahdanau, 2014) attention models for the task, shedding some light on the features such models extract.

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Towards String-To-Tree Neural Machine Translation
Roee Aharoni | Yoav Goldberg
Proceedings of the 55th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)

We present a simple method to incorporate syntactic information about the target language in a neural machine translation system by translating into linearized, lexicalized constituency trees. An experiment on the WMT16 German-English news translation task resulted in an improved BLEU score when compared to a syntax-agnostic NMT baseline trained on the same dataset. An analysis of the translations from the syntax-aware system shows that it performs more reordering during translation in comparison to the baseline. A small-scale human evaluation also showed an advantage to the syntax-aware system.


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Improving Sequence to Sequence Learning for Morphological Inflection Generation: The BIU-MIT Systems for the SIGMORPHON 2016 Shared Task for Morphological Reinflection
Roee Aharoni | Yoav Goldberg | Yonatan Belinkov
Proceedings of the 14th SIGMORPHON Workshop on Computational Research in Phonetics, Phonology, and Morphology


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Automatic Detection of Machine Translated Text and Translation Quality Estimation
Roee Aharoni | Moshe Koppel | Yoav Goldberg
Proceedings of the 52nd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)