Roi Cohen


pdf bib
Evaluating the Ripple Effects of Knowledge Editing in Language Models
Roi Cohen | Eden Biran | Ori Yoran | Amir Globerson | Mor Geva
Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Volume 12

Modern language models capture a large body of factual knowledge. However, some facts can be incorrectly induced or become obsolete over time, resulting in factually incorrect generations. This has led to the development of various editing methods that allow updating facts encoded by the model. Evaluation of these methods has primarily focused on testing whether an individual fact has been successfully injected, and if similar predictions for other subjects have not changed. Here we argue that such evaluation is limited, since injecting one fact (e.g., “Jack Depp is the son of Johnny Depp”) introduces a “ripple effect” in the form of additional facts that the model needs to update (e.g., “Jack Depp is the sibling of Lily-Rose Depp”). To address this, we propose novel evaluation criteria that consider the implications of an edit on related facts. Using these criteria, we then construct RippleEdits, a diagnostic benchmark of 5K factual edits, capturing various types of ripple effects. We evaluate prominent editing methods on RippleEdits, showing that they fail to introduce consistent changes in the model’s knowledge. In addition, we find that a simple in-context editing baseline obtains the best scores on our benchmark, suggesting a promising research direction for model editing.1


pdf bib
Crawling The Internal Knowledge-Base of Language Models
Roi Cohen | Mor Geva | Jonathan Berant | Amir Globerson
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EACL 2023

Language models are trained on large volumes of text, and as a result their parameters might contain a significant body of factual knowledge. Any downstream task performed by these models implicitly builds on these facts, and thus it is highly desirable to have means for representing this body of knowledge in an interpretable way. However, there is currently no mechanism for such a representation. Here, we propose to address this goal by extracting a knowledge-graph of facts from a given language model. We describe a procedure for “crawling” the internal knowledge-base of a language model. Specifically, given a seed entity, we expand a knowledge-graph around it. The crawling procedure is decomposed into sub-tasks, realized through specially designed prompts that control for both precision (i.e., that no wrong facts are generated) and recall (i.e., the number of facts generated). We evaluate our approach on graphs crawled starting from dozens of seed entities, and show it yields high precision graphs (82-92%), while emitting a reasonable number of facts per entity.

pdf bib
LM vs LM: Detecting Factual Errors via Cross Examination
Roi Cohen | May Hamri | Mor Geva | Amir Globerson
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

A prominent weakness of modern language models (LMs) is their tendency to generate factually incorrect text, which hinders their usability. A natural question is whether such factual errors can be detected automatically. Inspired by truth-seeking mechanisms in law, we propose a factuality evaluation framework for LMs that is based on cross-examination. Our key idea is that an incorrect claim is likely to result in inconsistency with other claims that the model generates. To discover such inconsistencies, we facilitate a multi-turn interaction between the LM that generated the claim and another LM (acting as an examiner) which introduces questions to discover inconsistencies. We empirically evaluate our method on factual claims made by multiple recent LMs on four benchmarks, finding that it outperforms existing methods and baselines, often by a large gap. Our results demonstrate the potential of using interacting LMs for capturing factual errors.