Ronak Pradeep


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Exploring Listwise Evidence Reasoning with T5 for Fact Verification
Kelvin Jiang | Ronak Pradeep | Jimmy Lin
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 2: Short Papers)

This work explores a framework for fact verification that leverages pretrained sequence-to-sequence transformer models for sentence selection and label prediction, two key sub-tasks in fact verification. Most notably, improving on previous pointwise aggregation approaches for label prediction, we take advantage of T5 using a listwise approach coupled with data augmentation. With this enhancement, we observe that our label prediction stage is more robust to noise and capable of verifying complex claims by jointly reasoning over multiple pieces of evidence. Experimental results on the FEVER task show that our system attains a FEVER score of 75.87% on the blind test set. This puts our approach atop the competitive FEVER leaderboard at the time of our work, scoring higher than the second place submission by almost two points in label accuracy and over one point in FEVER score.

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Scientific Claim Verification with VerT5erini
Ronak Pradeep | Xueguang Ma | Rodrigo Nogueira | Jimmy Lin
Proceedings of the 12th International Workshop on Health Text Mining and Information Analysis

This work describes the adaptation of a pretrained sequence-to-sequence model to the task of scientific claim verification in the biomedical domain. We propose a system called VerT5erini that exploits T5 for abstract retrieval, sentence selection, and label prediction, which are three critical sub-tasks of claim verification. We evaluate our pipeline on SciFACT, a newly curated dataset that requires models to not just predict the veracity of claims but also provide relevant sentences from a corpus of scientific literature that support the prediction. Empirically, our system outperforms a strong baseline in each of the three sub-tasks. We further show VerT5erini’s ability to generalize to two new datasets of COVID-19 claims using evidence from the CORD-19 corpus.


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Document Ranking with a Pretrained Sequence-to-Sequence Model
Rodrigo Nogueira | Zhiying Jiang | Ronak Pradeep | Jimmy Lin
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

This work proposes the use of a pretrained sequence-to-sequence model for document ranking. Our approach is fundamentally different from a commonly adopted classification-based formulation based on encoder-only pretrained transformer architectures such as BERT. We show how a sequence-to-sequence model can be trained to generate relevance labels as “target tokens”, and how the underlying logits of these target tokens can be interpreted as relevance probabilities for ranking. Experimental results on the MS MARCO passage ranking task show that our ranking approach is superior to strong encoder-only models. On three other document retrieval test collections, we demonstrate a zero-shot transfer-based approach that outperforms previous state-of-the-art models requiring in-domain cross-validation. Furthermore, we find that our approach significantly outperforms an encoder-only architecture in a data-poor setting. We investigate this observation in more detail by varying target tokens to probe the model’s use of latent knowledge. Surprisingly, we find that the choice of target tokens impacts effectiveness, even for words that are closely related semantically. This finding sheds some light on why our sequence-to-sequence formulation for document ranking is effective. Code and models are available at

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Covidex: Neural Ranking Models and Keyword Search Infrastructure for the COVID-19 Open Research Dataset
Edwin Zhang | Nikhil Gupta | Raphael Tang | Xiao Han | Ronak Pradeep | Kuang Lu | Yue Zhang | Rodrigo Nogueira | Kyunghyun Cho | Hui Fang | Jimmy Lin
Proceedings of the First Workshop on Scholarly Document Processing

We present Covidex, a search engine that exploits the latest neural ranking models to provide information access to the COVID-19 Open Research Dataset curated by the Allen Institute for AI. Our system has been online and serving users since late March 2020. The Covidex is the user application component of our three-pronged strategy to develop technologies for helping domain experts tackle the ongoing global pandemic. In addition, we provide robust and easy-to-use keyword search infrastructure that exploits mature fusion-based methods as well as standalone neural ranking models that can be incorporated into other applications. These techniques have been evaluated in the multi-round TREC-COVID challenge: Our infrastructure and baselines have been adopted by many participants, including some of the best systems. In round 3, we submitted the highest-scoring run that took advantage of previous training data and the second-highest fully automatic run. In rounds 4 and 5, we submitted the highest-scoring fully automatic runs.