We present a new gold-standard dataset and a benchmark for the Research Theme Identification task, a sub-task of the Scholarly Knowledge Graph Generation shared task, at the 3rd Workshop on Scholarly Document Processing. The objective of the shared task was to label given research papers with research themes from a total of 36 themes. The benchmark was compiled using data drawn from the largest overall assessment of university research output ever undertaken globally (the Research Excellence Framework - 2014). We provide a performance comparison of a transformer-based ensemble, which obtains multiple predictions for a research paper, given its multiple textual fields (e.g. title, abstract, reference), with traditional machine learning models. The ensemble involves enriching the initial data with additional information from open-access digital libraries and Argumentative Zoning techniques (CITATION). It uses a weighted sum aggregation for the multiple predictions to obtain a final single prediction for the given research paper. Both data and the ensemble are publicly available on https://www.kaggle.com/competitions/sdp2022-scholarly-knowledge-graph-generation/data?select=task1_test_no_label.csv and https://github.com/ProjectDoSSIER/sdp2022, respectively.
Classifying citations according to their purpose and importance is a challenging task that has gained considerable interest in recent years. This interest has been primarily driven by the need to create more transparent, efficient, merit-based reward systems in academia; a system that goes beyond simple bibliometric measures and considers the semantics of citations. Such systems that quantify and classify the influence of citations can act as edges that link knowledge nodes to a graph and enable efficient knowledge discovery. While a number of researchers have experimented with a variety of models, these experiments are typically limited to single-domain applications and the resulting models are hardly comparable. Recently, two Citation Context Classification (3C) shared tasks (at WOSP2020 and SDP2021) created the first benchmark enabling direct comparison of citation classification approaches, revealing the crucial impact of supplementary data on the performance of models. Reflecting from the findings of these shared tasks, we are releasing a new multi-disciplinary dataset, ACT2, an extended SDP 3C shared task dataset. This modified corpus has annotations for both citation function and importance classes newly enriched with supplementary contextual and non-contextual feature sets the selection of which follows from the lists of features used by the more successful teams in these shared tasks. Additionally, we include contextual features for cited papers (e.g. Abstract of the cited paper), which most existing datasets lack, but which have a lot of potential to improve results. We describe the methodology used for feature extraction and the challenges involved in the process. The feature enriched ACT2 dataset is available at https://github.com/oacore/ACT2.
The most interesting words in scientific texts will often be novel or rare. This presents a challenge for scientific word embedding models to determine quality embedding vectors for useful terms that are infrequent or newly emerging. We demonstrate how Latent Semantic Imputation (LSI) can address this problem by imputing embeddings for domain-specific words from up-to-date knowledge graphs while otherwise preserving the original word embedding model. We use the MeSH knowledge graph to impute embedding vectors for biomedical terminology without retraining and evaluate the resulting embedding model on a domain-specific word-pair similarity task. We show that LSI can produce reliable embedding vectors for rare and out-of-vocabulary terms in the biomedical domain.